June 28, 2016

Should we eliminate winning and losing in children’s games?

 

 

In a traditional model of education children are taught to compete with their peers from an early age. Previously no harm has been detected in this methodology but today more educators think on destructive effect of rivalry which kids see over all kinds of competitions. It concerns not only sporting events but also studying process and interpersonal communication. Ambitious children forget about all other benefits they get from competition, and what is more important – that it is only a game, when they are deeply upset of losing or value themselves above anybody else when they win. To solve this problem psychologists suggest to implement more games without scores so that children realized that competition also involves fair behavior and team spirit.
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Do different types of intelligence exist?

 

 

The debates on how many intelligences exist in people or, which is more precise, by how many factors abilities of a person called human intelligence are predetermined still go on in scientific circles. Traditional or conservative approach towards the nature of our cognitive abilities claims that human intelligence is influenced by a single factor and it is revealed in advanced analytical thinking and involves mathematical skills. Despite a solid position taken by this point of view, opponents of a single-intelligence theory claim that only one dimension of human cognitive activity cannot be treated as intelligence. They expand this notion towards other human skills not connected to analytical thinking but which definitely make people out of their social environment.
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Where should society set the boundaries for freedom?

 

 

Freedom is a basic human right guaranteed by numerous constitutions around the world. We distinguish various types of freedom which refer to unrestricted opportunities and manifestations in all the spheres of our life. While we usually associate this notion with open expression of thoughts and own management of our living, freedom frequently implies putting no limits to actions and behavior of individuals even if it nurtures disgusting phenomena like discrimination. In the countries with high standards of freedom the law is usually provided with additional restrictions and remarks that ban expression of malicious attitudes and respective behavior.
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Which is worse: failing or never trying?

 

 

The fear of failure is well known to everyone who has ever set on performing problematic tasks. Due to the individual temperaments, not all of us become excited in face of challenging experience; moreover, it is quite clear that all those who realize their responsibility in the result become uncertain according to whether it is worth trying at all. It would be fair to say that those who decide not to take huge responsibility doubting their chances for success and refusing from dealing with difficulties cannot be blamed, especially when many people directly depend on success of the task.
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How will the world be different in one hundred years?

 

 

The world around us changes extremely fast, and we owe it to the rush of technologies, in the first place. Not only our habits and activities transform with the flow of time but also topics of concern, quality of life, and career perspectives. As we can observe even now, the tendency towards higher living standards and increased well-being of the average individuals on our planet gradually strengthens. And what do we expect to see happening in one century? Obviously, not destruction, degradation, and downfall.
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What problems would arise if we could cure all illnesses and eliminate hunger? How would we address those problems?

 

 

In the course of human development global problems continually change: some of them vanish, the others appear. For example, such practice as slavery was gradually eradicated, but poverty and hunger still remain and continue to destruct the whole societies. While the problem of racial discrimination soon will meet its end, it was succeeded with discrimination of people with specific sexual orientation. It seems that such global issues do not vanish at all, they just flow into one another, like energy does. Thus, the problems go round and are unlikely ever to end up. Consequently, if we assume that humanity would be cured from all illnesses and no children in rural areas of Africa would die from hunger, we have no more illusions that the earth could turn into paradise.
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Time is money. True or not?

 

 

Modern promotion of money as a means to achieve the greater good has been condemned by moralists and religious people. Nevertheless, its value and influence upon the society is huge and cannot be denied by those whose incomes are rather moderate. Moreover, today we got used to pay money for a time unit when we are given services of various kind. While some people consider it weird to pay for time and not quality of goods, the others believe it is a fair system as major employers get payed respectively to the number of hours they work.
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The meaning of color

 

 

The way people perceived outer world considerably influenced their beliefs so that a long time ago they started to draw connection between phenomena. This perfectly explains why we treat flowers of various colors differently and why the whole set of norms was invented that provides explanation which color is suitable to any particular occasion. Somehow we agreed that in the western culture black is suitable for people in grief, while white is perfect for wedding attire; scarlet roses shall be sent to beloved person, while yellow are strongly inadvisable for underlining interpersonal relations. All these and many more conclusions have been made due to a certain status given to every color.
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The greatest discovery in the history of the world

 

 

Human civilization has changed dramatically over few last centuries. Scientific development presented us such inevitable things as construction of DNA molecules, antibiotics, x-rays which made a breakthrough in medicine, as well as gravity, solar system, and evolution which turned upside down human ideas of their place on the earth and in the universe. All these fascinating discoveries are tiny parts of an enormous puzzle as they all play equally crucial role in the current and further development of the science. Nevertheless, concentrating attention upon one of the greatest inventions it is worthy to investigate the impact which electricity has made upon modern humans.
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Does money matter in our life?

 

 

A number of rhetoric questions we usually ask refer to financial well-being. It is quite obvious as nowadays we usually overestimate material values and neglect things which we cannot buy for money. Nevertheless, today buying ability has considerably stretched towards the spheres which never associated with financial opportunities before. Certainly, we use money to arrange almost every sphere of our life: we manage household, improve our health, take care of others, and rest in our free time according to how much goods or services we can pay for. And for this reason it would be rather unwise to claim that the role money plays in our life is superficial.
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How to make a difficult choice

 

 

Decision making is a responsible business which will have certain consequences that depend upon how sound was decision of the past. Today there is the whole variety of problematic topics which require tough solutions, and this reality does not make a situation any easier. Probably, everyone has ever faced a question where there are no rights and wrongs; nevertheless, a correct decision must have been made even if every possible solution seemed totally wrong. Such occasions are frequent in area of personal or public relations between people, and they cannot be ignored just because a sound solution seem not to exist at all.
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May 28, 2016

How to overcome fear

Fear is a considerable bulk on our way to accomplishing any goal. This complex emotion does not only occur when we are scared of some material objects like mice or spiders;  frequently fear of uncertainty or future events makes our burden much heavier than it actually is. Due to the deep and potent roots fear spreads in our mind, it has never been easy to combat this emotion. Harboring phobias in our heads we let them take a comprehensive control over our actions which is really difficult to call off.
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Work and Recognition

 

 

Appreciation is the feature more common to volunteers than to clerks with well-payed jobs. Non-profitable organizations are aware that their volunteers work because of their own initiative and sheer ambition to help, for this reasons such people are deeply appreciated. Consequently, recognition of ordinary workers is usually disregarded by managers as they think that the staff’s salary can be enough encouraging if they still work at the company. Nevertheless, appreciation of the employees’ work is a key condition to making sound psychological atmosphere in the group.
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Union Strikes

 

 

Realization of the labor rights by employers is a key condition to maintaining peaceful atmosphere at the working place and achieving a satisfactory result. The tradition to go on strikes has developed in the course of history when workers felt that their rights had been violated. It started from pre-industrial strikes mentioned to take place in Ancient Egypt, and modern-like industrial strikes which considerably developed starting from 18-19th centuries.
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Transnational Inequalities / Global Classes/ Elites/ De-nationalization

 

 

Taking into account current rate of globalization, the notion of inequalities transcends particular nationalities. Thus we consider some derivatives of social classes to appear on the international arena. They can be clearly visible in the economic area where greater popularity achieve well known and promoted companies. Potent manufacturers spread with the lightning speed around the world putting companies that work exceptionally within few countries far behind.
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Technology & Society

 

 

The level of technological development makes a significant impact upon the development of the whole society. Technologies affect every dimension of our everyday life, thus they change our habits and help to optimize our strength and save time. To some extent they unite people around the world as the latest inventions quickly spread due to the globalization. Among the major areas where   devices and people are closely interrelated are household, work, education, personal development, health, environment.
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Stereotypes

Stable images which are used to characterize certain group of individuals are called stereotypes. They are an inevitable part of human communication, especially between various nations. Stereotypes are not always considered as negative depictions, sometimes they can be satiric, comic, generally speaking – benevolent. Appearance of stereotypes is a consequence of ignorance, misunderstanding of foreign cultures, desire to explain events in comical light. All stereotypes are partially true and partially distorted as they have not appeared just out of nothing.
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Social Stratification / Social Classes / Social Inequalities/ National Inequalities

 

 

Inequalities have a range of manifestation in societies on various stages of development and with various forms of authority. Social stratification is a process which starts a gap between social classes. Division of all people into layers is inherent not only to the tribal communities which are on the very start of their existence, it is the same norm for Western societies. Belonging to any particular stratum is predetermined by birth or heritage even by this time, though, unlike in medieval times, today people are quite free to move to the upper class if they become successful and famous in various spheres, or sink to the lower stage if they were unlucky and lost their fortune due to the actions of opponents, gambling, substance addiction etc..
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Social Privilege

 

 

Privilege is a social category which has a lot in common with inequality. In general, it is a material or spiritual advantage of one social class over the others. The most frequently it refers to people who have all opportunities to get education at prestigious establishments, rent a nice expensive flat, buy a house, and not to be particularly restricted in anything. Turning to the spiritual dimension, privilege here is belonging to socially secure community like native people which become more and more opposed to all the foreigners, immigrants, national and racial minorities due to the globalization. Privileged social classes frequently underline their differences from those unstable and unprotected by the government. Such behavior often results in hostility between social groups and damage done by haters and those who envy privileged classes.
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Social Policy

 

 

Dealing with the prior social problems like discrimination, racism, use of substances, gun issues is an inevitable part of governmental daily activities. Sound social policy is a favorable opportunity to diminish the effects of the problems mentioned above upon the society. Development of a complex measures for social protection and preventing undesirable phenomena is no less important than conducting foreign policy or solving problems in economy. A disastrous social policy can cross out any other governmental achievements as the society is a powerful force which displays how skillful politicians are in their actions. Besides, international prestige of any country is measured not in the last turn by its social programs and securities.
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Social Integration

 

 

Formation of collective consciousness would be impossible without social integration of individuals. Various social groups form due to similarity of their members who integrate into society joining communities. All the inhabitants of the earth have some shared as well as different features; and the perfect ground for integration appears as people realize that they are more alike, have the same views and problems, and can achieve their goals easily with the help of others. Talking about integration we usually mean that a certain part of people like immigrants or social minorities overcome their fears and get ready to accept another world views, traditions, even religion to become closer to the community they live in. This factors make the process challenging for those who integrate and pose several obstacles for those who want to assimilate with new environment.
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Social inequality based on money, class, name etc

 

 

Inequality remains to be one of the most frequently discussed social issues. It usually comes along with discrimination and poverty. The danger of this phenomenon lies in the fact that inequality is the precise factor which prevents a nation from being called “highly developed”. No matter how advanced are the technologies and which level of industrialization is achieved in the country, there is no way to become an example for the others when the gap between social classes continues to rise.
The first feature for groups of individuals to contrast is their wages. Capitalistic society already predetermined by its ideas and policies the highest profits for those individuals who run their own business. This policy is fair in respect to the relations on market, nevertheless it only underlines the gap existing between enterprises and a working class. Besides, it influences available amount of social protection including education and healthcare from which the poorest individuals are excluded.
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Rent Control

 

 

Rent regulation belong to the issues which become more and more urgent in the last years. The problem of housing touches upon every citizen, as even private owners pay taxes for their accommodations, not even to mention renters. Well-being of tenants greatly depends on the amount of rent they should pay monthly for any housing. And the problem lies in the fact that landlords are continually escalating their prices which are predetermined by the situation on market and high demand which tends only to rise with every year.
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Racism that exists in various forms and disguises throughout the world

 

 

Racial discrimination is a stable phenomenon difficult to eradicate by combined efforts of the government and society. The more people try to get rid of it, the better it disguises and turns into covert racism. It is especially common for developed countries where any manifestation is punished by law. In this case discriminating views occupy areas of mass media, advertising, movie industry, video games where human brain passively accepts offensive content frequently not even realizing it.
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Public Spaces

 

 

We are surrounded by public spaces from everywhere. Roads, parks, squares, galleries, theaters – all these places we pass by every day were constructed to gather some amount of people who rush in their businesses or rest.  Public spaces are usually provided and taken care by a government, though sometimes new parks appear on the initiative of non-governmental organization which agreed upon its construction with the local authorities. Each kind of public spaces is aimed at conducting certain activities, which means that public manifestations can be appropriate not to all public spaces (we cannot arrange a political demonstration in the theater hall, for example). Actually, the notion of public space can be defined as a room or location to which all members of community have an open access. That is why almost every place we regularly visit is more or less public if it is not a private property.
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Prostitution – should it be made legal

 

 

Prostitution is one of those numerous negative phenomena which are condemned by a majority of people, who are perfectly aware that it exists. Different opinions are presented by the adherents of business in any form and the advocates of morality. The topic is quite delicate and concerns interpersonal connection, that is why opponents of prostitution can argue referring to mere social norms and accepted morality code. Nevertheless, a considerable percentage of people suppose that as a voluntary activity aiming on earning money prostitution shall be justified and legalized.
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Marriage between the same sexes – should be made legal or not

 

 

When we come to the point of same-sex marriages, debates immediately transfer from personal business to the public policy. Despite the general tendency towards equality, social perception of LGBT groups still differs. Adherents of liberals favor legalization of gay marriages, while conservators deeply condemn such perspective. Both of them rationalize their opinions with the help of religious and legal sources.
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Live-in-relationships or marriage – which is a better option for the society

 

 

A couple living unmarried presents a kind of danger for religious or conservative people. It seems to them extremely odd, illegal, and even abusing way of events, as these people cherish responsibilities claimed before God or Civil Registry Office above all others. Nevertheless, today even more couples pay no attention to sheer formalities and consider it correct to live together as long as they need before the marriage.
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Liberal lifestyle vs the conservative ones

 

 

The meaning of liberalism and conservativism are already clear from their names. Two opposite political directions represent left and right wings respectively; their views towards policies, economic strategies, and social phenomena differ drastically. Though both these directions are aimed at achieving common good, like freedom, education, and healthcare, they approach different ways in realization of these concepts.
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Increased drug and alcohol abuse amongst teenagers

 

 

Cases of overuse in substances have considerably increased among teenagers over the last decade. Due to various reasons more youngsters become smokers and heavy drinkers. Situation with uncontrolled flow of drugs does not seem to be solved in the near future as well.
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Inclusion

 

 

When we talk about exclusion, we imagine broad range of conditions in which a person can be treated as “odd” for some particular social group, thus they are deprived of basic privileges inherent to all members of the group. But inclusion is associated with only one type of social discrimination and it refers to people with disabilities. It can be defined as treating disabled people as fully-fledged members of society and recognition of their imperfections not as defects, but as individual peculiarities which, nevertheless, cannot diminish human dignity.
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Identity and Globalization

 

 

The process of globalization does not affect only political and economic processes around the world; it influences our self-identification and determining our place among other nationalities. Human identity is an umbrella term which includes realization of who we are on our own, within social groups and communities to which we belong, and our connection to the world in its broad meaning. And if globalization contributes to human interaction between nations all over the world, it certainly implies assimilation and homogenization for all of them.
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Housing Policy

 

 

The value of housing has greatly increased over the last years. Not only Americans but also European citizens became more concerned about their rent, as modern household expenses tend to rise and take a considerable part of family incomes. Both homeowners and renters faced the problem of housing affordability which embraces almost every type of housing irrespective of the conveniences, infrastructure, educational and healthcare facilities available in the area. Families with low incomes face housing troubles, in the first place, which proves the system of subsidies to be inefficient.
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Group Behavior

 

 

All manifestations of individuals interacting within their social groups are included into the notion of group behavior. Investigating the way people communicate, interchange views and ideas, make decisions, and respond to the actions of their social environment is crucial for defining causes of negative social phenomena like discrimination and exclusion.
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Globalization – same set of things found anywhere and everywhere in the world – the pros and cons of it

Globalization is reflected in each sphere of human life. Improvement in economic potential of any particular country, global trade and growth of export, raise of multinational corporations, better interchange of views and values between cultures – all these undeniable advantages became possible in the course of globalization. This process contributed both to societies and their individuals who obtained numerous innovative ways to arrange their everyday activities more efficiently and save more time for relaxation.
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Gender inequality – why are men always portrayed as the bread winner and woman as a home maker in media and advertising

 

 

Despite a general tendency towards equality of people in a developed world, it has not been fully implemented yet, and we all are to be partially blamed in it. The truth is many of us like gossips and prejudice, and easily fit in an image created by mass media where behaviors and activities are distinguished according to the gender marker. Men are portrayed as high-fliers and women – as homemakers just because many people got used to live their lives according to this pattern and do not realize why exactly gender roles should be interchanged.
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Gender Inequalities

Gender inequality can be found almost on every level of social life. Though gender roles which formed centuries ago are almost eradicated, they turned into gender bias and stereotypes which resist fulfillment of equal opportunities for men and women. The most frequently inequalities rise in employment and education fields.
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Feminism

 

 

Feminism is a range of social and political movements around the world that promote issues of gender equality and women achieving equal opportunities with that of men. The first manifestation of feminism took place in the nineteenth century when suffragettes claimed that women should have a right to vote. And this event triggered a long chain of social transformations in which female population was continually assimilated in their abilities to males.
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Exclusion

 

 

Social exclusion is natural for every society, even if it is not multinational. Marginalization, depriving of certain rights and needs according to different appearance, physical or mental abilities, views than that of a majority is social exclusion. This concept is linked to discrimination in most cases as it deals with limited rights of racial, sexual, religious minorities as compared to the major population of any country. Exclusion often drags humiliation, inequality, social deprivation.
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Ethnicity

 

 

Ethnic groups are communities in which all members are connected by common area of habitat, common ancestors, same color of skin, share traditions, beliefs, views. The whole population of the earth consists of separate ethnic groups which can be easily distinguished by different appearance, language, behavior. Nevertheless, such notions as ethnicity, race, and nationality must be distinguished from each other as they are close enough to confuse but still different things. Belonging to any race can be visible from the color of skin while ethnic groups differentiate themselves due to the traditions and beliefs. People within one ethnicity can form a nation, and are further associated with this nation even when they emigrate.
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Environmental pollution vs industrialization which helps in giving employment to many

Pollution is a matter of the utmost importance for everyone who cares about environment and quality of their life. When global warming became an evidence which threatens society with disappearance of favorable agricultural conditions and fierce natural disasters, more people became concerned about future of their children. Environmental pollution is one of the major drives in climate change, and it is mainly caused by high level of industrial development and great amount of plants around the world. As most of them work on fossil fuels, toxic emissions are continually released into the atmosphere. Besides, we cannot oversee spillage of wastes into the sea which makes damage to the wild nature and stimulates extinction of species. Obviously, great harm is done due to the human efforts, but the question no one can answer is whether we are ready to stop polluting environment.
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Domestic violence

 

 

Cruel relations between the family members are one of the most disappointing manifestations of social interaction. Domestic violence in most cases implies husbands humiliating their wives and parents beating their children. This negative practice takes its roots from ancient times when women were worth only for childbirth and they were despised when appeared to be infertile or gave birth only to female children. Even until now traces of old prejudices preserve their meaning which results in discrimination and violation of human rights.
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Consumerism

 

 

Consumerism can refer to fair policy of manufacturers reproducing their goods for the consumers as well as to the constantly increasing need of individuals to buy more products and services. This process was greatly contributed to by globalization and bigger variety of cheaper goods and increased ability of citizens to buy numerous items which they could not allow themselves as they were children and which seemed almost luxurious to their parents. Consumerism is a variant of norm considering conditions in which we live today. Nevertheless, necessity to buy items can transfer on the wrong side of the common sense, like shopaholism in women.
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Child labor – the conditions in which a child is forced to work in and also the views of the child’s family

 

 

Child labor used to be a severe reality for American and European kids even about a century ago. As home enterprises required more labor force which should also be paid wages by the owners of capital, such families involved their children to earn for living almost to the same extent as adults did. Kids also worked in agriculture and very frequently sold newspapers in the streets. The situation with developing countries was, obviously, even more acute: colonial history affected every  citizen in the same way; slaves had a different value according to their age and abilities, but still children were forced to do nearly the same job as their parents.
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Capitalism vs socialism

 

 

Differences in systems of social organizations sometimes can be drastic, like in example of controversy between capitalism and socialism. The core distinction lies in the division of economic resources aimed to serve different purposes and benefit to different layers of society. Describing the systems in the most general features it is important to point out that capitalists economy accentuates upon private entrepreneurship and a free market for enterprises to raise their capital; socialism, in its turn, contradicts paying major attention to private capital and prefers economic profits to be shared by all social classes using the system of subsidies and social programs. The US is still referred to as a motherland of capitalism while the socialistic model of running economy was ingrained in some countries of Western Europe and the Soviet Union.
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Absolute poverty- the causes and ways to remove it

Living in absolute poverty means to have no money or be unable to get basic amount of food and drinking water, have no shelter or accommodations, be deprived of ability to receive healthcare and education. It differs from relative poverty, as having a few conditions to live a normal life cannot be compared too living without drinking water and sanitation facilities.
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Abortion – a right for the mother

Abortion – a right for the mother

 

If we observe the map with countries that either allow or prohibit abortion marked on it, we will see that most countries of the world allow abortion to be done on request or when the health risks are obvious. Still, those countries where such manipulation is forbidden act predominantly on religious reasons. But when authorities argue about who ought to decide whether abortion should be legal or not, pregnant women think about their perspectives in raising a happy healthy children and agree to do abortion if they consider that it is not a right time to have children.
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Why Is It Important to Impart Sexual Education in Young Children?

 

 

Sexual education is crucial for the countries that want to eliminate undesirable social processes like infectious illnesses, poverty, or domestic violence. Educating our children properly we ensure good health and high moral standards for the whole nation. Talking about problems caused by insufficient sexual education or its absence except for the issues mentioned above we also must point to teenage parenting and neglect of children. To avoid all of them the system of education at secondary school must be considerably improved and, obviously, include such subject as sexual or parenting education.
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The aging process

 

 

Young age provides us with an access to broad range of activities. Exciting events and adventures are immanent to those who are young, but an old age will sooner or later come to everybody. Aging is the phenomenon of physical decay which proceeds very gradually. As our organism starts to produce less chemicals and hormones, our skin becomes less elastic than it used to be and function of internal organs decreases.
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Social Interaction

 

 

As we know that humans are social creatures, surely, it becomes impossible for us to live without social interaction. This term refers to exchange of information, experience, and impressions among individuals. Social interaction is also communication and doing activities in groups;  it is immanent to all layers of society. Social interaction usually takes place between members of one group or community; nevertheless, there are numerous examples of fruitful international, intercultural interaction, or interaction between distant groups within a single society, like politicians and electorate, for example.
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Social control and cults

 

 

Social control is a function performed in every social group by its leader. The first thing that occur to us while speaking about social control is activity of totalitarian leaders conducted in Nazi Germany and Soviet Union. Their policy was implemented by involuntary mass obeying as the recalcitrance was mainly punished by murdering. Despite the common belief, social control is not always so evil, and usually it is performed by influential individuals with the aim to ensure living in accordance with approved social norms. On the one side it can be authority that needs obeying to the constitutional laws of every country, on the other side it can be closest and trusted social environment like parents, family, friends, etc..
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Social cognition

 

Social cognition embraces a number of processes in our mind that are responsible for processing information concerning person’s social environment. Here belong recognizing, analysis, judgment and others. There are such common facts as infants recognizing voice and face of their mother or ability of humans to make judgments on the others through analyzing their actions and motives but not spontaneously. These processes are ensured by the areas in our brain responsible for perception and processing such information; it can be clearly seen as people with such mental disorders as schizophrenia or autism fail to present social cognition.
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Should certain kinds of ads be banned in the interest of health/morality/annoyance – alcohol, cigarettes, prescription meds, etc…?

 

 

Modern society has already got used to the omnipresent advertising industry. When at the very beginning of its existence ads were meant to be placed only in specially given sections in media, today they developed into a persistent creature that follows us every step on our way. Due to its highly persuasive nature, the pros and cons of countless advertisements are now actively discussed in society. Especially parents are anxious about the influence of such content on their kids.
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Short Term and Long Term Memory

 

 

Memory is a process which helps us to retain pieces of information in our brain for a short or long periods of time. Few people are known for their brilliant ability to memorize overextended numbers or texts and maintain them in mind for some time, and most of us consider themselves rather forgetful individuals who do not remember information they have heard seconds ago. So we wonder why we all are so different, and whether it is possible for most of us to memorize more things and keep them in mind for a long time.
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May 27, 2016

Seasonal affective disorder

 

 

Feeling excited with the first shiny golden days of autumn changes with annoyance, irritability, and general sleepiness for many people in the world. Seasonal affective disorder frequently comes alongside with considerable reduction of the sunlight in winter as compared to summer and early autumn days. Sometimes it is really curious to see how human organism reacts towards certain changes in nature. Nevertheless, some people reveal symptoms of the disorder in spring or summer when there is an excess of sunshine that may appear too blazing and uncomfortable.
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Schizophrenia in Young Women and Men

 

 

Schizophrenia as all mental diseases is an unpleasant event that can happen in a lifetime. Possessing  such brain condition is even a greater shock for a family and friends of the patient. Before suspecting a person to have this disease their social environment just wonders how could it have happened that an outgoing and vivacious person became completely unmotivated in life and separated themselves from the other people.
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Schizophrenia

 

Schizophrenia is not very common mental disorder, but still about one percent of Americans suffer from this condition. It is characterized by an odd behavior of individuals and having a distorted picture of reality.

Schizophrenia has a range of symptoms vividly distinguishing it from other mental conditions. In the first pace, hallucinations are common for patients with such disorder. They can be visual and provide a person who is completely awake with pictures and visions that do not correspond with what people can actually see; also they can make people hear voices that do not exist either. Besides  hallucinations, patients with schizophrenia often feel delusions which also belong to the distorted perception of reality. But unlike visions, delusions are false believes which usually imply patients thinking that other people has done to them something that never happened. Despite all these three symptoms indicate to certain abnormality in mental health, the problem is that patients themselves cannot realize that all they see, hear, and believe does not occur in the real world.
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Role of Environment in Personality Development

 

 

The impact of social environment upon children during the whole process of their growth and maturing cannot be underestimated. Though the factors predetermining the personality of an adult range from the genetic preconditions to views adopted from the internet, people among whom a kid grows up play a crucial role in formation of personality.
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Relation between Physical Illness and Stress

 

 

Living in modern developed world we experience an invasion of stressful factors in our lifestyle. Stress is a very expanded term that covers a wide range of external influences upon humans. To start with, scientists differentiate positive stress and distress. Both of them happen to us continually in every kind of environment and influence major processes inside our body. Initially, facing both positive and negative stress our heart beating and blood pressure increase, but many more sophisticated mechanisms can begin as a result of a continual response to stress.
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Psychological Reasons for Depression

 

 

Depression can be fairly regarded as one of the most common psychological conditions of a developed society. The amount of people suffering from depression cannot be precisely counted as a lot of them do not consider such condition to be serious and potentially dangerous; that is why patients apply for the help only partially. The causes of trapping into a depressed state are numerous as well. Among them we can find both physical and psychological factors.
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Problem-solving

 

 

Most people usually face numerous problems and challenges everyday. There is actually nothing disastrous in problems, as we got used to treat them, it is just important to have good problem-solving skills to get rid of them quickly and not to threat them as an obstacle to living a quiet life. Problem-solving is a result of our mental activity that enables us to make several steps preceding our victory over the problem. In the first place we get to the core of problem and differentiate its causes, then we analyze situation and make up a few potential solutions one of which may be the key to solving; and last, we chose the most suitable variant and start to implement it.
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Prenatal development

 

 

Children are growing up quickly, and they do so even in mother’s utero. In about nine months a female organism is able to produce another organism which by the moment of childbirth weights a few kilograms. Prenatal development is a very complex process that requires a lot from the mother-to-be, and it is quite clear as a new organism is fully supplied with everything it needs from the maternal organism.
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Prejudice and discrimination (ie, homophobia, sexism, racism)

 

 

Treating other people as flawed due to their belonging to any social group is a generalized definition for such notions as prejudice and discrimination. Equality of all people irrespective of their views, believes, and origin has become an incontestable truth comparatively short time ago.  Western societies underwent a few massive waves of executions on the national and religious basis in times of World War II and even some centuries earlier when women were burnt in a witch hunt. Nowadays, when the Western world is trying to rehabilitate from the past evidence of concentration camps, equality of people becomes an issue of utmost importance.
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Phobias

 

 

An ability to feel fear is immanent to all humans. It is a defensive drive that warns us about potential danger and keeps us safe. But experiencing constant exaggerated fear towards certain objects or phenomena brings us not only mental but often physical discomfort. We develop phobias in a result of some painful experience, consequently, we try to avoid scary things or situations as we are unable to perform most mundane tasks when the danger is around.
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Persuasion, propaganda and marketing

 

 

Persuasion and propaganda are the tools for making people adopt certain ideas and believes. They can be used for a wide range of purposes, and in our developed trading world they are frequently involved to achieve goals of marketing. The latter, in its turn, is a helpful means for running business and increasing its incomes. On conditions of present competition most companies will do everything to ensure clients that their goods and services are the best; consequently, marketing experts refer to such old and efficient practices as persuasion and propaganda.
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Person perception

 

 

Social perception plays a great role in our lives, as all humans are social beings. In order to have a full-fledged existence we are to realize ourselves among our equals, receive from them certain amount of approval, appreciation, and support. Social perception is fulfilled by the visual and hearing sensory systems, in the first place. It refers to looking at appearances and analyzing them, hearing voices and making associations. After that we watch how people behave and make some judgments on whether they respond to every particular situation correctly taking into account all factors that presumably make people behave as they do. So it is how we perceive our social environment. The question remains: is person perception as important as physiological perception of external excitants?
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Perception

 

 

Receiving information from the outer world would be impossible without the process of perception.  It is a physiological phenomenon which is conducted by a sensory system the goal of which is to makes sure that our organism lives in the harmony with the outer world. As we know, five sensory systems are functioning in human body: they are vision, hearing, touch, smell, and taste. Without proper work of any of them our body would be endangered to threats to which we usually do not even pay attention. Sensory systems slow down their work with age, and it becomes obvious, how crucial they are.
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Parenting styles

 

 

Talking about parenting styles we refer to several emotional approaches parents encircle their kids with. Various researchers define and describe these styles differently. Considering parenting typology by Baumrind as a basic one, we observe three major types of emotional parent-child relations: authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent and neglectful. Authoritative style in parenting is usually conducted by demanding but also careful parent who wants to raise responsible and mature offspring. This style is a balance between demands, explanations, punishment, care-taking, comforting, to put it shortly, – everything the child needs to develop into self-made and confident personality. Authoritarian parenting, on the contrary, means raising obedient children by making orders and punishing for non-fulfilled expectations. This parenting style has numerous side effects as children get used to depend on parents fully, or grow up and adopt this type of treating other people. Indulgent parents do not demand from their kids too much; they rather concentrate on fulfilling wishes of their kids, thus making them self-centered and irresponsible. Surely, indulgent parents rarely forbid something their children, that is why youngsters start to overuse alcohol and drugs. And the fourth style is associated with total neglecting of kids. Parents do not seem to be interested in needs and behavior of their children. They care either of themselves or have other urgent matters to pay attention to.
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May 25, 2016

Nonverbal communication

 

 

Nonverbal part of any conversation is actually no less informative than the verbal one. For this reason many people still appreciate live face-to-face meeting more than chatting, as they can observe their interlocutor and see the way they move, grimace, and gesture. Such indicators do not only help to get some more information about speaker but also to discover their attitude towards their own words, subject of conversation, and audience.
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Mental Illness and Aging

 

Aging is a normal process which indicates that the human organism wears out. Aging is caused and accompanied by slowing down of most processes of interchange in our body, which inevitably drags unpleasant feelings and much higher chances of developing physical disorders. Here especially belongs group of conditions immanent to elderly people where we can find diabetes, cardiovascular conditions, osteoporosis, various inflammations of joints like arthritis etc. Women in their turn suffer the range of unpleasant illnesses caused by reducing of hormones and slow chemical interchange.
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Mental Development of Special Children

 

 

Children with special needs are those who have various disabilities due to the restricted physical or mental development or damaged health. Various physical and mental conditions are likely to cause a child’s organism to slow down its development and make affected kids stay out among their peers.  As a consequence of ignoring special needs of children an inability to move, learn, communicate and, generally speaking, live a normal life will emerge.
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Learning disabilities

 

 

Difficulties in mastering certain skills like reading, writing or calculating is quite wide spread in American schools as well as abroad. Parents usually find out learning disabilities of their kids at the early age when the child has started attending primary school. Dysfunction of such kind are caused by quite vague and common causes as heredity, complications of pregnancy, and post-birth accidents which can actually influence child’s organism in many ways. Learning disability is a condition characterized by limited activity of certain parts in human brain, thus it becomes difficult for a kid to process certain information. Certainly, learning disability must not be confused with child’s higher potential to one sciences and weaker understanding of the other. All kids are individuals, and various parts of brain can be developed differently, nevertheless, learning disability is a perfectly visible fail in performing basic tasks children normally master at primary school or even earlier.
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Leadership

 

 

Without a person of leader organization of work in groups and fulfillment of collective tasks seem impossible to achieve. Leadership has a direct connection to possessing certain social skills and psychological traits that are crucial for one person’s ability to take a greater pressure on themselves. The first leadership models appeared in ancient times, they changed and developed throughout a history. Yet, it is important to point out that no social group united by the same target could ever exist without a person who provided motivation and drive to other members.
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Such complex phenomenon as language clearly distinguishes humans from other living beings. We use limited number of sounds and syntactic patterns to create unrestricted speech fragments that help us to communicate verbally. Acquisition of language is a process of adopting syntactical and morphological patterns and developing an ability to make up new verbal fragments and reproduce them in speech. Language acquisition concerns both kids adopting first language and students or adults learning second language.
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Judgment

 

 

Making judgments is inherent to every human. We got used to judge other people, their actions, views, believes, and preferences. The problem with judgment is that very often we do it taking into account minor traits of others or, what is even worse, we judge without making a critical analysis before. And once the opinion has been made, it is difficult to change. The first impression always plays a crucial role in treating people. Wrong judgment can cause a wide range of interpersonal problems from misunderstanding to discrimination and humiliation of individuals. Making judgments based on solid facts is a key to creating sound interpersonal relationships and beating social stereotypes.
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How Individual Differences Affect Stress?

 

 

It is a common fact that all people respond to stress differently. That is explained by belonging to different types of personality and possessing various character traits. Type of nervous system, speed of responding to external factors, frequency of impulses in brain, and many others individual characteristics make us cope with stress just in the way we do it. Probably, some of us would like to be more strong and decision-making in order to solve problems easily and quickly, but they just become shocked and depressed instead. And that happens due to having a particular personality type.
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How Does Social Anxiety disorder Affect the Routine Life of a Person?

 

 

Social anxiety disorder is a very common problem in the US. Being antisocial has become a normal condition to more than a half of American population. Researchers link increasing social phobia with dramatic rise of social networks as reject necessity of everyday face-to-face communication. Being afraid of other people and their opinions comes out of the ordinary shyness; but frequently feeling uncomfortable to make phone calls, even on business, and to do a job involving communication skills scares people and make them separate from every possibility of meeting others.
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How Bipolar Disorder Affects the Routine Life of a Person?

 

 

Bipolar disorder is characterized for people suffering from drastic mood swings and constant change from one extreme to the other. Patients experience peaks of high and low neural activity, from aggression to depression. The disorder occurs due to the range of causes inherent to related mood and personality disorders; among them genetic predisposition, imbalance in brain chemicals and co-occurrence of related psychological diseases are distinguished.
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Gender roles

 

 

Every society has a certain set of norms on every stage if its existence. These norms include socially constructed behavioral patterns inherent for males and females. Gender roles were predetermined by physiological differences and transformed dramatically with time. They were frequently misused for various political and religious targets in the past, which gave a start to sexism, discrimination, and gender-biased stereotypes. Strong influence of gender roles greatly depends on religion, culture, and general level of the social development.
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May 24, 2016

False memories

 

 

False memories syndrome is closely connected to the topic of memory modification. False memories do not emerge on their own: they are usually a consequence of hypnosis or other type of therapy conducted by psychologist. Having an actual memory of a sorrowful event suppressed by one’s mind is a possible consequence of a mental trauma; but very often people imagine themselves events that did not occur in reality or are induced by other people to confirm events that never happened.
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Eating disorders

 

 

Abnormal eating habits are quite common nowadays. Though they have been defined as mental disorders, they greatly affect both physical and mental health of individuals. Eating disorders embrace a range of conditions related either to excessive eating or to consuming insufficient amount of food. Some reveal themselves in children, though it often becomes clear already in the adulthood that something is wrong with eating. Despite the wide range of causes, psychotherapy provides an adequate solution for each type of eating disorders.
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Dreams

 

 

Such private matter as dreams has received quite ambiguous coverage in the course of history. In ancient times they were supposed to be prophecies sent by gods for people to predict their future. As  humanity developed enough to research the structure and processes occurring in human brain, the mechanism of dreaming became more understandable for people. Besides, there appeared few psychiatric theories on interpretation of dreams, some of them obtained more acknowledgment, the others – less. Anyway, people still do not lose their interest in dreams and invent their own ways to decipher scenes and pictures they observe in sleep.
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Does Gender Affect Memory?

A lot of studies have shown that brain of men and women works differently. Men are known to memorize spatial information better that women while for the latter it is easier to remember figures, words, and facts. Scientists claim that such division can be explained by minor differences in brain structure of males and females. They involve better development and enhanced activity of different brain centers.
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Does Gender Affect Depression in Individuals?

 

 

When it comes to depression, psychologists claim that gender makes a difference. Though all depressed people share a range of characteristic symptoms, they frequently do not coincide in males and females. Besides manifestation, even causes of the condition can vary due to the gender marker.
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Different Stages of Human Development

Human development is one of the most miraculous phenomena that we know. Looking at photos of people taken at various stages of their development we wonder how such a tiny baby grows into an ambitious adult and then ends up in a picture of a senile person with a walking stick.
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Depression

 

 

A great amount of people in the US complain on being depressed. They describe alike symptoms that come down to melancholy, low spirits, being too much indifferent or, on the contrary, experiencing outrages of anger and hysteria. These and many other symptoms are the same for people with depression. Although some people still consider such mood swings negligible, doctors have proved depression to be a serious mental condition that requires an immediate treatment.
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Child abuse

Child maltreatment is extremely unfortunate but such a frequent crime nowadays. Having a tough childhood gives a push to variety of social problems as well as physical traumas and mental conditions. Violence, poverty, sexual exploitation, drug and alcohol addiction, juvenile delinquency, high rate of crime – all these “diseases of society” emerge as kids all over the world are badly treated, beaten, and used for various purposes. The American law is strict in respect to those who neglect children; there are child protection agencies that control implementation of human right among kids. Nevertheless, child abuse has spread world wide.
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Borderline personality disorder

 

 

Borderline personality disorder belongs to the mental conditions that perplex our apprehension of other people and ourselves. The condition can have a wide range of manifestations from overestimating people to committing a suicide. Patients with borderline personality disorder always rush into extremes and are unable to define aurea mediocritas in their estimations. They usually have difficulties with settling stable relationships and frequently experience periods of harsh mood swings. The latter give a boost to dangerous behavior as attempts to harm others or themselves. Actually, any type of extreme behavior can point out to developing borderline personality disorder.
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Attraction, romance and love

 

 

As there exist several types of human appreciation, we confuse them so frequently. Despite we are aware that the difference between love, romance, and attraction potentially exists, sometimes it seems so vague that we got used to apply just “love” to any of them. Nevertheless, misunderstanding can be tricky and lead to disappointment. For this reason it is crucial for individuals to label their feelings correctly.
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Attention span

 

 

Ability to pay attention to things is crucial for children and their further development. Parents are usually annoyed when kids are too easily distracted, and teachers consider it as disrespect to themselves and indifference to their subjects. But attention span in people differs depending on wide variety of reasons starting from their age and ending up with occupation. Thus, focused attention of little kids can comprise only few minutes when in teenagers and adults this figure reaches about 20 minutes. It can be perfectly visible as the youngest students have certain difficulties with concentrating at lessons, that is why their curriculum remains in a process of constant improvement.
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Antisocial personality disorder

 

 

Cruel, cold-blooded, and very difficult to cure, antisocial personality disorder acquired a stable rise among other personality disorders over the last decade. Its essence lies in displaying violent, despotic, inhuman behavior and predisposition to heinous crimes without feeling any remorse for inadequate actions. People with antisocial personality disorder are usually dangerous for their social environment.
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Women are better parents than men

 

Parenting implies great responsibilities, vast amount of time and energy, and patience in upbringing kids. Before the child is born not everyone fully realizes what the profession “parent” looks like. But having a baby turns a lot of things upside down, and, what is more, parental tasks do not get easier with time. As children grow up, their parents notice even more weird or suspicious things about their offspring.
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Why aren’t doctors held to the same rest standards as pilots?

 

 

There is a range of professions which we consider to be extremely stressful. In these occupations people either work with dangerous substances or are active round the clock. They often have vast responsibilities and are continually concentrated on the process. One of them are pilots. Surely, the pressure is extensive; first of all they need to have a brilliant state of health as so many lives depend on skills and abilities of the pilots. Second of all, constant flights are likely to cause over-exhaustion so that pilots need more time to recreation. Usually, they have quite a satisfactory work-rest schedule, as employers realize how disastrous can be consequences of pilots’ insufficient rest. But, certainly, there are many other stressful professions, and the rest of such workers must be appreciated as well. Among them doctors are to be mentioned in the first place.
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Why are women prescribed tranquilizers three times as often as men?

 

 

The vogue on prescribing tranquilizers remains very strong by this time all over the US. Living in the era of increased stress people seize for every opportunity to diminish it. But stressful factors usually do not accept equality of men and women – females detect symptoms of anxiety and depression much more often than males, and this is the perfect reason why so often tranquilizers are prescribed to women. Actually, men are more reticent when it comes to some indistinct symptoms and they just continue living their normal life, unlike women. The latter are much more predisposed to panic on the basis of health problems, especially when they have much more responsibilities than men do.
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Why are poor people more likely to be obese?

 

 

Recent studies show that such an urgent problem as obesity is interrelated with the other global threat – poverty. At first thought, the connection between phenomena looks feeble or exaggerated, but, unfortunately, it is true. Americans with lower incomes are several times more likely to get obese than well-off citizens. Poor education often comes along with low salaries and enhance obesity even more. The reasons for such negative dynamics are numerous. Among them conditions in which pregnant mothers lived, their lifestyle, how long they breastfed their babies, and what kind of food kids received from the early age. Sure enough, above mentioned factors create a predisposition to obesity, and than it can be strongly contributed to by kids and teenagers living unhealthy lifestyle and consuming food poor in nutriments.
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Why are many colleges and employers reviewing a candidate’s blog as a part of the interview process? How might this effect how young people’s blog?

 

 

Blogging and posting content on social networks is a vital part of our online identity. Manifestation of our own lifestyles and promotion of the views of others is a means of displaying personality. And  employers are aware that most applicants have a blog or a Facebook profile which becomes an additional source of information about their future employees. Surely, human resource workers would like to know more about people who will become responsible for their corporate success, and especially about their weak points and predilections. That is why checking blogs is a recommended step colleges and organizations should make before accepting applicants.
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May 10, 2016

Who is Tim LaHaye and how is he spending his millions?

 

 

When we think that pastors can be found only in churches we make a certain mistake; and career of Timothy LaHaye is an acknowledgment of this fact. Christian minister and writer, Tim LaHaye is well known in the US and abroad for his activity in politics and even more – for his Left Behind series of bestselling fiction about apocalypse. Having received a good education, practiced at christian college, and streaming his believes into politics the former priest became a public figure.
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When criminal behavior can be explained by a medical condition, how should the criminal justice system respond?

 

 

Committing a crime cannot be justified by any explanations. The guilty must be found and held responsible by all means. But how judges are supposed to make a fair decision when the criminal behavior was caused by mental disorders? Surely, such problem shall have somehow different solution.
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Lack of attention in children is a problem that makes their parents worried. Many of them become anxious when they notice that kids are inattentive, hyperactive, and impatient; consequently they rush to pediatricians to find out the cause of strange behavior. Indeed, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is a condition that prevents children from proper socialization and intellectual development. Moreover, doctors connect Attention Deficit with the most common sleeping disorders claiming that these conditions share some symptoms and frequently come along. Still, not only children but also adults are diagnosed with Attention Deficit and experience inconveniences in their life caused by the condition.
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What is the etymology of key words in computer and technical jargon such as fax, mouse, gopher, blog, podcast?

 

 

Technologies do not stay and wait for those who are not acquainted with them yet; it is a sphere which obtained a rush development over the last few decades. And as long as we invent new objects, we need to give them names.  Though we got used to name the things as everybody does, it often does not occur to us what is their source and why we call them so.
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