February 10, 2014

The role of microexpressions in sales

Microexpressions perform critical roles in sales. They help the salespeople to communicate figuratively to the prospected customers. Microexpressions regard brief forms of facial expressions lasting for a short duration, and may also go unnoticed. Proper and correct interpretation of these can be useful in understanding the deeply entrenched emotional feelings in the salespeople. Customers are able to recognize the sincerity of the salesperson while the salesperson can be able to identify a potential customer through microexpressions demonstrated by clients. The phenomenon equally relate to emotional intelligence in various aspects. The fact that these observations guide the sellers’ understanding of an emotional feeling that clients possess at certain times is useful in social and economical circles. For instance, they help salespeople to interact constructively with the prospected clients. Besides this, they are important in forums such as debating and negotiations which can take place in places of business. The face is usually powerful in reflecting the true feelings that an individual holds regarding certain issues. And perhaps, these skills are much more important in sales where a lot need to be done to win over a client. In sales, selling a product involves selling feelings to a prospective client. The aim of this is to ensure that their fears are cleared while trust is build between the sales agent and the client. The tactics employed in sales should, therefore, ensure that communications and negotiations are directed towards the understanding of the emotional considerations made by the client. Hence, managing to address these provisions provides some success. The product aimed to be sold, therefore, represents an emotional bit of a buyer that should eliminate uncertainty. This is important in building trust with clients.

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Manchester United case

Work Breakdown Structure
1. Preparing for the tournament
1.1 Contacting local collages for fields
1.2 Refurbishing the fields
1.3 Expanding the number of soccer fields
1.4 Setting entry fee charges
2. Officiating matches
2.1 Team screening
2.2 Seeking qualified referees
2.3 Developing mechanism for resolving unprofessional contact in the field
3. Sponsorship and Tournament designs
3.1 Deliberate on the choice of T shirt design for the tournament
3.2 Contract an artist to design the tournament T-shirts
3.3 Seeking for Corporate sponsors
4. Rewarding the winning team
4.1 Developing the criterion for rewarding winning teams
How developing a WBS alleviates the problems that occurred during the first meeting
Developing a WBS provides an overview of the activities to be done thus reducing the time taken to deliberate on issues. If Nicolette had an already established WBS the result would have been different since the WBS would have served as the guide to the deliberation process.
Where Nicolette can find additional information on how to develop WBS
With the internet, Nicolette has a wide range of options to choose from to gain more knowledge on how to develop a WBS. Consequently, she may also consult project management books to gain more insight on how to develop a work breakdown structure. Some of the recommented sources to help Nicolette gain more information on how to develop a work breakdown structure include: http://office.microsoft.com/en-001/project-help/create-work-breakdown-structure-wbs-codes-HA010156785.aspx and http://www.tutorialspoint.com/management_concepts/work_breakdown_structure.htm
How Nicolette and her task force can use WBS to generate cost estimations
WBS provides one of best ways to estimate the cost of the project to be undertaken. This is because WBS outline all the activities that will be undertaken during the project thus giving the project team a better method of estimating the cost of the project. By developing a WBS, Nicolette will have a breakdown of all the activities involved and the team will be in a position to allot the cost of each task.

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Information system and business context

Insurance Brokerage Database Management System
Twenty first century has declared a digital world in all aspects of doing business. There is the interconnectivity of people and organizations through digital platforms. Information technology has advanced business applications for a competitive edge. Many businesses have turned social media sites as the new marketing strategies. Mobile technology has also advanced in terms of functionality and interface. All these global changes are attributable to the fast entry of internet all over the world. Hospitality industry has not been left behind in technological advancement. Global competitive markets have led to the creativity and innovation of the various technological strategies for efficiency (Schwalbe, 2010). Stringent legislation environment has also led to enterprises innovativeness. Organizations are striving to be ahead in terms of technology applied and its efficiency in the production systems. Use of Enterprise resource management tools is another area of competition in business.
The dynamism of the world today makes it a necessity for a business to have flexible systems (Schwalbe, 2010). The two business applications have a competitive edge for a business in the fierce industry today. They incorporate various strategies, functionalities, and modern technology that place a business enterprise at a competitive level. An insurance management system with clients’ details makes it easy to monitor and also plan accordingly. The project is mainly about defining the approach to project management, quality control of finance and the purchase, applied in the brokerage system. The upgrade project points out toward supporting new financial and purchasing functions, implement additional modules (Lester, 2007). It also seeks to link purchasing and financial systems, plus transforming the current customization and interfaces.
Assumptions/Constraints
Skilled expertise is another constraint for the project to kick-start.
Recommendations
Technology affects the interaction of people on a face-to-face basis. Management should adopt an all rounded business strategy to tackle the problem. Managers should develop a balance in the usage of technology and interaction with clients (Schwalbe, 2010). The effects of technological advancement in the relationship with clients should be addressed. Management should introduce programs geared towards teaching their clients on technology usage (Iyer, 2012). This is because of the vitality of this industry. It is the role of administration to warrant their employees are well equipped with the right technology to handle clients (Lester, 2007).
Training programs should be introduced for employees on a timely basis. This will enhance the level of skills resulting to better service delivery to clients (Schwalbe, 2010). Communication is a significant tool in business and, therefore, management should ensure completeness of information at all times. Various issues raised by clients should be handled in a professional way. Finally, customer satisfaction should be the priority of doing business (Schwalbe, 2010).

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Internet and Censoring

Introduction
In recent and modern times in the world, internet has increasingly become wide source of information as more people and organizations are getting connected. Internet mainly links the whole universe because as the name suggest, internet refers to the international network. Internet use and access has raised sharp debates in recent weeks over the exposure and revealing of vital information to the public which has dire consequences to governments and threaten the stability of political and security structures of states (Vinton 98). This paper will examine some of the measures that various organizations have taken to prevent the adverse effects following internet use. It will explore the challenges that are faced in the establishment of an enabling internet environment and regulations that govern the whole connectivity idea.
In terms of achieving a proper information society, governments and international organizations have been proactive in all aspects of ensuring rule of law online. As a significant entity in ensuring internet freedom, governments in conjunction with the UN have a crucial role in the achievement of open access to internet. Censorship of various internet options has been a feature in ensuring security of internet users who are prone to harm by unsafe ways of the utility. This puts freedom of expression at risk as the western democracies, least expected to step up and support censorship, are pushing for censorship of information provided by the internet more specifically Google. The US, Canada, France and the United Kingdom respectively in such percentages only have their requests granted with the US gaining more influence on Google.
However, key player organizations and observers have come out to fight for online freedom and freedom of expression through the internet (Patricia 66). The Human Rights Council, a body under the UN recently made a huge resolution of recognizing online freedom of expression. It is during this time that digital rights advocates and their companies together with academicians signed the Declaration of Internet Freedom which they will use as a basis of any debate that arises on online internet policy.
In India, the government has pushed for the restrictions in censorship following a clash between the Indian – Muslims and the locals of the Bodo tribe. The internet was responsible in spreading rumors that the Indian – Muslims were planning an attack on the North Eastern migrants in India which triggered the Bodo tribe, who are inhabitants of Assam, to plan attacks the Muslims who dwelled there. This led to protests by the Muslims in Mumbai while those ones living in Assam fled to refugee camps fearing for their lives. These lies had been spread across India and it was causing mayhem among the two tribes whose differences date back to 1993.
In China, internet censoring has led to the government coming up with measures to protect its confidential information in the international internet traffic. Censorship in China has led to exposure of financial and sexual scandals within officials in the Chinese government that has led to the resignation of about 10 public officials. The international media has also exposed how the Chinese ruling families are accumulating wealth. This has pushed the Chinese official in the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology to ensure tough regulations on the Chinese internet service providers together with the use of the entity.
Conclusively, having an open free internet allows individuals to exercise their freedom of expression, assembly and association. Therefore in order to ensure proper protection from the adverse effects of internet use, the rights of the users should be put into consideration.
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Seedstore

Seedstore is a clothing store in California that specializes in the sale and marketing of assorted brands of clothing lines. Besides, the store carries a huge assortment of trendy clothes. Also, there is a huge assortment of clothes ranging from jeans, sweaters, jackets and even shirts for both men and women (Seedstore 1). This is the premise of a good store that offers a wide variety of products in both type and brand. The store offers their product or service to many people of different backgrounds. Hence, it is important that the store should hold brands that the highest number of people can identify with and establish a relationship. Secondly, the store should carry a brand (or brands) that attract the public in a phenomenal way (Jacobs,1). The following are the famous brands in the Seedstore; H by Hudson for shoes, Raleigh Denim for their Limited Edition jeans and BAGGU for their bright colored bags. The brightly colored bags are in line with the current trend of women’s dressing where brightly colored attires are considered a display of good sense of fashion.
The addition of a new clothing line or brand, one that is known more widely and extensively is also very important in order to complement the vintage selection of clothes. Such brands could be GUCCI and Tom Ford. This is because these brands are experiencing growing publicity over the past several years and could thus form the basis of good business for the store and service availability for the clients. The two brands have received a lot of attention in the market, and this is the basis of the inclusion of these brands in the store’s line. Additionally, any business should focus on the needs of their clients more. Given the fact that, these two brands have been advertised (directly and indirectly) through music and songs that have received worldwide attention, hence many people now feel obliged to buy and dress in these brands (Tan,1). This is free publicity and marketing for the store and as such, will kill the proverbial two birds with a single stone. First, it will boost the store’s image in comparison to their competition. Secondly, it will gain the much required popularity in the market due to the availing of the products and brands in fashion.
Similarly, some brands or clothing lines should be dropped off from the store. This is because they do have the necessary attention in the market base as they should have. These brands are, for instance, Brooklyn Tailors and Butter London. This is because they do not speak to the stores’ immediate market, neither does the market identify with the brand. The brands to be removed from the collection are meant to reduce saturation of the brands, which are slightly older in favor of those that are new in the market and those that have had a good pop cultural attention. This is because pop culture is the best indicator of a good market in any business, especially one dealing in fashion (Diller al 20).
Conclusion
Businesses should not only purpose to have the best products in their stores, but also should aim to have these products correspond to the needs of their customers (Rossiter and Ang 123). Thus, Seedstore should target to keep up with the market requirements by either dropping or adding other brands and clothing lines.

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Site Survey/Inspection Questions and Answers/Checklist

Site survey involves carrying out research on an area before people decide whether to use them as construction sites or not. Consideration on the risks and the benefits of the site help people to make their decision. Construction sites should have access to security, access to infrastructure and have a clear view of the surrounding areas. To research on security of an organization the survey focused on physical security, guard security, and office security checklists.
Physical Security Checklist
1. Does the organization have a perimeter wall provided around their compound? Yes, it has a perimeter wall surrounding.
2. What type of wall have they used or what type of barrier have they used as their perimeter wall? They have used concrete walls.
3. Does the perimeter wall or the barrier help in restriction of entrance by all people? Yes, the barrier has created one entry point.
4. What materials make up the doors of the perimeter wall? Have the company acquired them from timber or metal? Metals doors exist
5. Does the perimeter barrier have a one-entry point or several entry points? The perimeter has a single entry point.
6. Do the perimeter fence gates remain intact and well maintained? Yes, the perimeter fence remains well serviced.
7. Do the hinges that connect the gates remain secure and intact? Yes, they remain secure to avoid people breaking in easily.
8. Does the gate have people to monitor it and make it secure? Yes, the gate has people to guard it.
9. Does the perimeter wall have the right height to deny people from seeing the inside of the organization? Yes, people cannot see inside.
10. Does the rear gate remain closed in the perimeter wall? No. This exists because the company has just one single point of entry.
11. Does the company have alarm devices? Yes
12. Do the alarm devices function? Yes
13. Do the alarm devices have a central place of reflecting information? Yes
14. Does the company use alarm system regularly? No
15. Do there exist CCTV cameras in the company? Yes
16. Has the company fitted CCTV cameras everywhere? No
17. Can people drive to the fence and use their vehicles as ladder? No. the wall remains tall.
18. Can people climb the perimeter wall? No
19. Does the perimeter wall have an electric wire on top? Yes
20. How many electric wires remain integrated to the fence? Four
21. Does the fence have holes? No
22. Do there exist places around the wall that have undergone soil erosion? Yes
23. Has the organization put gullies to prevent soil erosion around the perimeter? Yes
24. Do guards have clear view of the surrounding area? Yes
25. Do there exist tall buildings around the organization? No
26. Has the company put any measures to stop trespassing? Yes
27. Does the company store its materials in a hidden place? Yes
28. Does the company use metallic materials in making doors and gates? Yes
29. Have they painted the metallic materials used? Yes
30. Have they secured windows? Yes
31. Do windows used have grills? No
32. What kind of frames have they used? Metallic
33. What kind of roofing materials have they used? Concrete slab
34. Why have they used this type of roofing material? Because of its durability and strength
35. Does the concrete roof leak? No
36. Can their roof have HVC? Yes
37. Have they used levelers as locks? Yes
38. Does still make part of the roofing material? Yes
39. Does the organization have light manufacturing like that of warehouse? Yes
40. Have they isolated their organization from other organization in terms of location site? Yes
Guard Security Checklist
41. Does the company use guards in improving its security? Yes. Both for individuals in the company and the company itself to ensure no theft take place.
42. Do guards have access to offices? No. The guards remain securing the company but not engaging in any office work.
43. Do patrolling guards have a clear view of the whole area? Yes. The site remains away from other buildings that hinder view
44. Do guards have access to gate keys? Yes. It is their responsibility to regulate the movement of people in and out the company.
45. Do security lights turn on automatically? No. They operate manually and the guard on duty ensures they remain in good condition.
Office Security
46. Do all employees in the company wear badges? Yes. They should put their badges on whenever they come to job.
47. Do the badges and ID’s of employees have badge numbers and their pictures? Yes. They bear both employee number and their picture for easy identification.
48. Do the offices have enough space? Yes. The offices have spacious rooms that have air conditioning.
49. Do employees and visitors have the same parking space? NO. The company has reserved parking for its employees to enhance security.
50. Who closes and opens the offices. The secretary opens the offices in the morning and closes them after work in the evening.
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Oedipus at Colonus

Theme of the Play
The theme of the movies and plays based on Oedipus Rex revolves around man versus free will, which states that although Man is subjugated to fate, he can still choose from a set of open options. The movie begins with the current situation of Oedipus Rex, who had been exiled and banished from his country, Thebes, for committing incest with his mother and killing his father. It was the prophecy of oracle but through the actions, it has been proved that Oedipus was free to choose another option, thus he bears some guilt for his actions. The movie under discussion is basically a sequel of the movie Oedipus Rex.
The Oracle was a person with the ability to communicate with the Greek Gods, so that he knew what would happen in the future. The Oracle resided at the temples of the gods and was believed to be able to interpret the vision of the gods by giving prophecies to the people who came seeking his advice. Consulting the Oracle became an accepted part of Greek life, and everybody asked him before making important decisions that would affect happenings in the society. Oedipus at Colonus was based on the fulfillment of the well-known prophecies of a man the Oracle said would kill his father and marry to his mother. It shows how this terrible and unacceptable fate was associated with Oedipus, and when he learned about his future, he was banished from the Thebes. Oedipus’ prophecy had two parts: the first being that he was fated to kill his father and marry his mother, and the second thing presented in the play is that he will die in the grove of the Furies.
The play is based on the kind of predictions and resulting guilt that can never be accepted in the real world. Everything rests on false assumptions and accidental encounters. The idea that a man could be born guilty, because it was already predicted that Oedipus would violate the two most severe taboos in the civilized society, is one that is difficult to understand in modern life. The final reveal that he has done exactly what he had been banished to prevent is the most complicated scene of the play, highlighting the fact that Oedipus had made the most terrible mistake of his life, and honing in on the realization of guilt and revulsion. Oedipus explains that he never intended to commit such acts. He only killed his father due to his self defense and marry his mother unknowingly who, after realization of incest, committed suicide. However, the thorough analysis of the play reveals many other critical aspects of the play.
Analysis and Critique of the Play “Oedipus at Colonus”
“Oedipus at Colonus” represents suffering, but not redemption for Oedipus and his family. The only good to come from it all is that he is used as a safeguard for Athens. After his death in the grove of the Furies, Oedipus’ tomb will give security to the Athens, but gods will continue to curse his family line. It is the main critique of the play that it seems unrealistic that Oedipus and his family have to have such suffering, defeats and curses for their unintentional sins inflicted on them by gods who knew it was going to happen before it did, and could possibly have taken steps to prevent it. Antigone, his independent daughter, also played a role in the drama, and at Thebes she is sentenced to death after defying Creon. Polyneices, the son of Oedipus, was also cursed in his struggle with Eteocles. Theseus was representing Athens due to his bravery and the love for justice, and play shows that he provides food, shelter and rescue to Oedipus and his family when they were in search of it. In our sense of word, the play does not represent reality. The characters, events of sins and suffering, will of the gods, survival of the city of Athens, and all the characters including daughters of Oedipus and his sons, Theseus, comes across as highly unrealistic and not patterned according life as an audience would expect to see it. The dialogues are also interwoven with the passages of poetry, singing and music and probably with dance, which are also unreal. We only have few details that suggest how impressive the spectacles must have been, and the play is presented in the verse with just a few places presented in the highest order showcasing the Athens society (Holcombe, 2009, 5).

Dramatization of the play ‘Oedipus at Colonus’ lacks all the tragic melodrama, with the characters presenting themselves too simply, while showing tragedies much longer than the expectation. The production was good enough to make things interesting, however. In this dramatization, Akshay Shran played the leading role as Oedipus, masterfully portraying his character’s blindness his frustration as king, when he cursed his son. The actor playing Theseus also shows his character’s strong kindness. Antigone, his daughter, seems to have full care of her poor father’s pitiable condition. All characters have parts to play in this dramatization of the Oedipus at Colonus, but the messenger plays a very important role through his words when Oedipus was on his way to Athens. It shows a tragic production of life and death and perceptions and beliefs of man on the predictions of those who supposedly know what will happen in future. The scenes dramatized in this play were made too simple without highlighting the overall perspectives of the play, such as how Oedipus did terrible things in his life, and what were the motives behind such ill thinking and bad fate. It needed to make the play more interesting with the strong involvement of the audience throughout the dramatization of the play showing different retrospective characters and how they were all associated with the main character “Oedipus” (Mercer, 2013).
The Play “Oedipus at Colonus” is all about the sufferings and sorrows of the blind and banished King of Thebes who has come in his wandering to the Colonus of the Athens along with his daughter Antigone. All the characters acted well in the play but still, they were not able to take the tragic aspects to its apex. Sitting on a rock and thinking about his final journey to the sacred grove of the Furies presents the miseries and sufferings Oedipus has to face due to his unthinkable past, which was full of sins inflicted by the will of the gods. The Oracle tells Oedipus that he has reached his final resting place, and the man playing the role of stranger consults with the Elders of Colonus.
Oedipus was blind and begging for food and shelter after his defeat as the king of Colonus. He appeals to King Thesues to accept his arrival and burial in Athens since it will safeguard Athens, and blessings from the king of Athens will confer on the State. The play shows promise of shelter and forgiveness as a central part of the King of Athens, Theseus, but Creon was in no mood to leave them, and enters after the departure of Theseus. He seized Antigone, having already captured her other sister, Ismene. When Theseus heard about this lawlessness on the part of the Creon, they questioned him until he showed them where the captives were, and gave them back. The story continues with the same theme of Oedipus’ suffering, and ends without any redemption but the promise that tomb of Oedipus at Athens will safeguard the city from outside attacks. Oedipus suffers throughout his life, and the interwoven of dialogues of poetry, music and dancing showcase unreal things happen again and again without any justice or linking things to the real world (Storr, 1912, 60)

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Nursing Turnover Rates in Nursing Homes

Introduction
The turnover of nurse is a critical issue affecting profitability and performance of healthcare institutions. Healthcare institutions need a stable, well skilled and active nursing employee to disseminate efficient patient care standards. The financial dimension of the loss of one nurse has been calculated to be close to $300, 000 annually for each percentage rise in yearly turnover of a nurse. The loss of this vital staff negatively affects the operations of healthcare institutions in several ways such as patient deaths, a rise in medical staff turnover among several other effects (Alexander, 1994). The main turnover of nurses causes can be analyzed by looking at the reasons as to why nurses prefer to work for some institution and making sure that this staffs value proposition is achieved and understanding issues that emerge after nurses are employed that drive them to quit even after their original job anticipations were met. This paper attempts to address the major causes of nurse’s turnover and ways to better retention in these vital healthcare jobs, the consequences and financial constraints of nurse’s turnover and finally give recommendations on possible solutions to handle nursing turnover.
Background
The employment of nurses by a nursing home and then retention of those nurses are key challenges in nursing deficiency environment today. There exist main factors that come into consideration as to why a nurse prefers to accept a specific job and if to remain at the institution once being hired there. The factors that affect retention and recruitment have been known to overlap attention between nurses being employed and the nurses contemplating remaining at that job place.
Addressing these factors which attract nurses and then makes their careers satisfying must be looked into if a healthcare home is to get and retain a satisfactory nursing staff. Nurse’s recruitment is also quite expensive to any institution. A recent research by Jones, CB, Nurse Turnover, cost Part 2, Nursing Journal on Administration, 41-49, approximated a total price of sixty two thousand one hundred dollars and sixty seven thousand one hundred dollars to hire a replacement for one nurse (Jones C. , 2005). In scenarios where vacancy rates rise to double digits, the expenses to the healthcare organization are enormous and likely to affect other resources such as overtime, workload, and nurses replacements.
With the anticipations such as those outlined above, all the healthcare organization management must struggle to meet the fundamental anticipations of the professionals that they hire. The management must understand that nurse’s recruitment together with their retention are spirited matters of the business of healthcare.
Definition of turnover rates
Challenges have been witnessed by scholars trying to compare and measure turnover over distinct health care systems. Turnover definitions together with accuracy matters regarding reasons for turnover are usually not consistent, making it so hard to generalize or compare across researches (Tai et al., 1998). Jones (1990a, b) defines nursing turnover as procedures by which nursing employees transfer or leave the hospital setting. Both involuntary and voluntary, together with external and internal turnovers have been factored in this definition. Voluntary together with involuntary turnovers usually are not distinct in researches since expenses are incurred irrespective of if employees resign or are asked to leave. Other researches define turnover as a job transition others term turnover of nurses as leaving the job place or the profession of nursing.
Mano-Negrin and Kirschenbaum (1999) asserts that turnover showcases the impact of the balance between institutional benefits coupled with a work career attitude. The behavior character can be counteracted by aspirations of a career if anticipations for progression keep them within an institution, coupled to by unemployment trepidation. In looking at the definition of turnover it is vital to admit that some nursing staff renewal can be perceived as helpful to institutions. The turnover of nurses provides a chance for reduction of expenses with lowered remunerations, cost benefits and retreat payouts for fresh employees (Jones, 1990a).
There could be a rise in productivity by offering enhanced matches as staff transition to jobs where they shall perform best, contributing to a resourceful labor market. Possible yields hard to quantify are because of knowledge infusion and opinions by replacements, policy inspirations shift and the reduced withdrawal behaviors exhibitions (Jones, 1990a). Though, as turnover approaches fifty percent, its productivity net impact is possibly negative since staff that the organization wish to retain are lost.
The causes of nursing turnover
Relationships are a major cause of nurse turnover such that if relationships among nurses and the management, nurses within are unit are strained, then they are most likely to quit the hospitals. Many nurses love to work in a society where everybody gets along. Reasons for sour relationships vary, for example, some nurses at the management level are given promotions without being adequately vetted for competence in such positions. Some sections might have nurses without self cooperation (Jones, 2005).
The other major cause of nurse turnover is issues associated to recruitment which could create the turnover of nurses in a hospital. Many doctors are prone to depart from hospitals that they seem lacking appropriate nurse employee levels. Furthermore, a clinic may have ample nurse employees but lack organized units. Farther, some doctors may depart a job if they seem not to be obtaining unfair job allocations, or suppose they are providing care for sophisticated patients often than their workmates.
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Financial planning

Intermediate Term Goals (5-8 years)
i. Save for a house down payment: I consider having my own home as one of the greatest achievement anybody can have in this life. Once I graduate from this school, I plan to at least have my own house. Most of my saving from now and once I graduate will finance the down payment for my house. Due inflation and increased demand for housing, I estimate the budget might cost about $25000.
ii. Pay-off outstanding debt: one of my intermediate plans is to clear my outstanding debt. Once I graduate and start working, I plan to clear my outstanding debt so that I can proceed with my long term goals. The budget for this cost is expected to be $3000
iii. Save for major home improvement and second home for vacation: since I consider myself as a person who loves traveling and exploring the world, I would wish to have a second home for my vacation. I would also spend some money improving my home to meet my leisure requirements. My total estimates for this plan are about $210000.
iv. Finance my major expense: my wedding is one of the important intermediate plans I have for my life. I consider it important since it is a once in a lifetime activity. I also consider it important because of its cultural and social importance it brings. The budget estimate for this function is $40000. My job and savings will finance a significant percentage for this project.
Long term goals (greater than 10 years)
I. Save funds for child’s college: education for my children is one of the major long term goals I have. Since the cost of college education keeps on rising, I would save part of my income for this goal. Most of my invest proceeds will go for this project. The budget for this goal is $180000.
II. Purchase retirement home: I consider having a relaxing home for my retirement as one of the greatest achievement anybody can have in this life. The budget for this project is estimated to be $1500000. My basic strategy to fund my retirement expenditure is to join a retirement benefit plan which I will use to save for my retirement which will cost about $100000.
III. Assist parent’s retirement: I am planning to help my parent’s retirement plan by giving them about $150000.
IV. Start my own business: I plan to invest in stocks and long term projects which will fund my recreational and retirements benefits. I plan to have a maximum of two children whom I think would not stress my financial requirements. The cost for this is estimated to be $250000.
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Home Security Systems

Objective
Ways of establishing and operating a business considering the tax ramifications of formation.
The following steps are followed to start a proprietorship business;
Identifying Business idea
This is the basis of starting a business. An entrepreneur starts by identifying business ideas. Theses may be his hobbies, demand for a good that he has discovered, from surveys he may want to introduce a new product and newspapers and magazines among other sources.
Evaluating business
The entrepreneur must then evaluate the business ideas and settle for the most viable. The most viable idea is one that yields revenues to the company as well as produce positive externalities.
Business plan
The entrepreneur then comes up with a business plan to guide him on starting the business. It identifies the financial requirements, sources of financing, helps to make best use of the resources at hand and to manage the business. It acts as a guide on how to start the business. It also helps the business owners come up with the best ways to fund the business operations.
Name of business
The entrepreneur then chooses a business name and registers the business under that name to get a license to start up his business. This name should be one that has never been used by another business. The name should also not include names such as national, government and federal.
Start operations
The proprietor starts his business immediately after getting his trading license. He does undertake other legal procedures to start up his business, unlike the corporations.
The following steps are followed to start a corporation;
Identifying Business idea
This is the basis of starting a business. Corporate owners start by identifying business ideas. Theses may be demand for a good that he has discovered, from surveys, they may want to introduce a new product and newspapers and magazines among other sources.
Evaluating business
The owners must then evaluate the business ideas and settle for the most viable.
Business plan
The corporate owners then come up with a business plan to guide him on starting the business. It identifies the financial requirements, sources of financing, helps to make best use of the resources at hand and to manage the business.
Name of business
The owners then choose a business name and register the business under that name to get a license to start up his business. The corporate name must be a name that has never been used by other businesses and must not violate another company. It must also comply with the corporation guidelines of the state it is operating. The name should not contain words, which are associated with the government for example, bank, national and federal.
Selection of the board of directors
This is the body assigned with the decision making of the company. The directors make financial decisions and set the company policies, set remunerations and approve the issue of shares of the company. The corporate owners appoint the directors and in some case, the owners are appointed as directors. The law requires that a company should have at least one director, but this depends on the state.
Articles of association
The owners then come up with Articles of association, which contains information such as the name of the corporation formed, the address of the head office of the corporate, names of directors and the addresses of the directors and occupation of the directors.
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The Departed

The Departed is a Hollywood-directed film by Martin Scorsese and authored by William Monahan in 2006. The film is a dramatization of development of the ego and pathology that employs narrative persona as a grid for showing the human beings psychological possibilities. The film highly focuses on the main character, just like most of the Hollywood classical films where the main character has clear impediments to overcome (LoBrutto, 2008). Collin Sullivan one of the main characters highly uses location shooting and violence to overcome obstacles. Fast paced action is a technique highly used in the film. In the movie it is clear that fighting for one’s ego is a tough endeavor.
In the film, the main actors symbolically represent the id, the ego and the superego. Jack Nicholson (the main antagonist) is a mafia who is self made. He engages all kinds’ illegal and illicit deals, and teaches a young boy who is a neighbor to take what he wants in life. In the film Jack represents the id as his drives are enacted without any restrain. In the beginning of scene one, a clear megalomania chant, “I never wanted to be a product of my environment. I want my environment to be a product of Me.” is heard. In most of the scenes Nicholson is seen recruiting conditioning and seducing the neighbor-boy his criminal lifestyle. He is bathed in ominous glow and in very dark shadows. Satan is associated with the corrupt values and visually tinted frames of the friendly Francis (LoBrutto, 2008).
The film shows how people have sacred childhoods but later on in life turn out to be criminals. Collin Sullivan was grew up as an angel but later on turns out to be a person who negotiates between the church and pleasures of Francis. Colin’s ego seeks to balance id’s drives and the consequences if the superego. He tries to look for powers church and state which in this case represent the superego. Sullivan appears to protect himself and Costello against the punishing consequences of the superego. For instance, when he is asked whether he would like to be a cop, during an interview he replies that he is already a cop. Collin appears to have a conscience that hates hypocrisy and opposes corruption. His superego seems to be spying the wrong doings of the id under the law that controls it.
The dynamics in the film allow the story to give details of external dynamics that occur psychologically. The reflecting function the superego and the ego is made clear through the visual pairing of Costigan and Collin Sullivan. Both men are cute and young, and resemble each other so much that it makes it difficult clearly distinguish them. In the film there is so much psychological tension that makes the meaning of the action to be intolerable. Queenan plays the role of a good cop while Dignam plays the role of a bad cop.
In the beginning of the film, Constello’s is voiced narrating an archival footage of civil rights and civil unrest experienced in 1950’s and 1960’s. This is an implicit demonstration of the chaos and civil disobedience that took place alongside the civil right movement, and suggests the state of the churches is fragile. Sullivan suggests that order should be put in place to control corruption and hypocrisy in society. Mise-en-scene of the film establishes the city’s inner setting with images graffied walls, tashed alleyways and abandoned warehouses. The setting of the neighborhood is display7ed with picture of men drinking liquor in cans and the images of catholic iconography.
All the actors in the film bring performance to the victorious bruiser of the film. Damon and Dicarpo give fiery emotionally performance, but it is Nicholson who reaches an unprecedented height of dissolute devilment as frank Constello. Whether he is bribing the cops, wielding a dildo or a gun, seducing children to engage in crime, or taking cocaine Nicholson’s performance is electrifying. Mercilessly executing a woman, Constello tells Mr., French; “she fell funny.”
When Costigan and Sullivan go to Massachusetts police academy, they did not know each other although they were trainees in the same academy. For Costigan joining the police academy was a goodbye to crime while for Sullivan it was chance to work with Costello who offered training to him since he was a young boy. While in the police academy Costigan is told that he will be an undercover cop and will never wear police uniform and his identity will only be known by Queenan. Sullivan on the other hand was to work under Capt. Ellerby and was supposed to wear the Statie uniform. According to him being in a police uniform makes one look “dressed to invade Poland.” Billy and Sullivan had to maintain their identities and work under different captains.
The respect that Sullivan has for the cops is conversely lacking in the character of Dicarprio who is the actual cop. At one instance, Sullivan pronounces that “there is no one more full of shit than a cop,” Suggesting that he is totally disillusioned by the police institution. Dicarprio, who is an undercover policeman, pretends to be violent who lives for money. However, he has to carry out Constello’s (his lieutenant) orders. For example, Dicarprio has to assist his boss in everything he does and carry unleash terror to the law breakers by battering them. This causes Dicarprio to undergo stress and fear, resulting to use of drugs such as Oxycontin and Valium. He is angry with the system that forces him to stay in untenable position and refuses to arrest Constello for having committed murder.

The contrast brought out by the “good guy” and the “bad guy” is quite significant. Sullivan, who acts as the “bad guy”, is outwardly great and tries to please everyone in the police force. He is the seemingly the ideal president of the United States. Costigan on the other hand is brutal, takes hard drugs and shoots people for no reason. He has spent some time in prison and one time assaulted his senior out of rage. However, he turns out to be the hero at the end of the movie (LoBrutto, 2008).
The rotten system of the police force is another theme in the movie. The rotten system allows corrupt bastards to continue serving in the police force. Alec Baldwin character largely represents the corrupt system. He is a stereotyped republican with opinions that bring him out as a cynical character. Sullivan frequently praises Baldwin while without his knowledge undermines martin and mark’s work. Other members of the police force are actively assisting Constello for various reasons. The entire film seems to take place in a miasma of deception, incompetence and borderline corruption. This mirrors the kind of world we are living in that with incompetent and corrupt individual serving the various government departments. Scandals seem to engulf the government institutions and no one in the system is willing to fight for fairness and transparency.
In conclusion, the film highly employs match cuts and several seamless transitions are clear between the scenes. For instance, when Sullivan sits on the framed window after ordering his juniors to track Queenan and learning about his death in the hand’s of goons hire by Costello. This scene is matched with a cut to Digman sitting at the same position of the window of Queenan’s office mourning Sullivan’s death. The implicit use of envelopes is another example where match cuts have used. Madolyn receives an envelope from Billy and puts it in her desk and in the next frame a different envelope lays across the torso of Sullivan. The use of the envelopes foreshadows and foregrounds show the irrefutable power of the manila envelope held by Madolyn. In the envelope, lays the truth and the potential that will finally be ratified. When Sullivan is whacked by Digman in his house, the audience is left with a feeling that it is true that the envelope had power to bring justice and equality in society. The unconscious content of justice has been exposed and the bogus ego murdered and the superego has been given a chance to bring order in the chaotic world.
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Synopsis of diary

The diary is about the time spent with officials from the correctional department and the juvenile offenders as well. It begins on September 23, 2013. It offers a glimpse into the inner workings of the judicial service system because it has quite a number of descriptions of courtroom proceedings. Mostly he spends time shuttling from one probation officer to another. However, at some point he gets to participate in some procedural matter. For example, he was involved in curfew checks. Shockingly, on a separate day, there is a bomb scare and police officers who later give the all clear after ascertaining that it was a false alarm surround the whole courthouse. The routine is repeated for a couple of more days and ends on November 25, 2013 with a plea by one of the offenders to a judge requesting to be released into community custody to serve the last days of his sentence.
Inmate population varies a great deal and is witnessed on different occasions. The offenders come from different backgrounds, are mostly youths and represent a wide variety of ethnic communities. There are Hispanics, whites and black Americans with the latter being the predominant race. The usual perception of law enforcement’s bias towards blacks is reinforced within the cellblocks and most black offenders complain of being victimized even when they are innocent. This attitude boils over in to the courtroom by the way they address the judges as they go about their defense. Some are more conservative than others are and follow court proceedings with decorum while others are more outspoken. Most of the time, this lands them in trouble as this is considered contempt of court.
In addition, the ages of inmates comprise mainly of youths. Most of the few elders who are inmates have served long sentences with some of them serving life sentences. Usually, the youth in the jails have performed very serious crimes and are considered dangerous to the society. They can be spotted in handcuffs and most of the inmates live in fear of them. Similarly, among the inmates are those whose health has deteriorated and require medical attention. Occasionally, the judge issues an order demanding the prison authorities to hospitalize an inmate, much to their relief.
A few are people who had decent jobs before their incarceration but many of them are men who had abandoned their families. Their life stories are somehow similar because they talk about alcohol and drug abuse. These types of confessions help to build rapport among inmates and it is at such sessions that they talk about their different caseloads. They go as far as advising one another on the right channels to follow in order to secure an acquittal. Since these sessions are interesting, they are angry when prison warders break up their meeting for another normal day routine like when its time for chores or lock up.
Prisoners, even though they are lawbreakers, they too have certain rights protected by the constitution through the prohibition of cruel and unusual punishment, Amendment VIII. Most of them are observed to be eager to be granted certain rights while others are seen to be complacent. For example, one inmate protested that he should not be locked in solitary confinement, where there is no natural light or even any form of contact with another human being for more than twenty-three hours. This is because such punishments lead to mental illnesses that could make the inmate a danger not only to other inmates but also to himself. The high cost of maintaining such an individual would fall on the relevant government department.
Overcrowding in most prisons is also a common feature that is experienced firsthand. This leads to poor sanitation, which makes inmates to live in unhygienic conditions thereby exposing themselves to diseases. These deplorable conditions subject them to inhumane treatment yet they have a right to be treated with dignity and respect. Just because they are in prison due to horrible acts does not mean that they are denied their basic rights. The conditions of the cells are an eyesore and it is particularly tough for new entrants who have to get used to the foul smell. Even though some cannot say it verbally, the expressions on their faces reveals their hated of their surroundings and it is a pity to watch them have to endure such conditions.
On other days, some prison officials are seen ignoring a prisoner’s request for reading material. This is a clear violation of the inmate’s rights because they are entitled access to material to either read or write. Furthermore, they too can practice the religion of their choice without discrimination. Most of the time, the inmates try to fight back but the prison officials do not budge insisting that they know what is best for them. This condescending attitude is what leads to conflicts in the relationship between the two sides and usually, as seen in one instance, the warder ends up physically assaulting the inmate thus fueling the tension.
A striking feature that was realized was the number of programs available for the inmates to assist them in their reform process. The Substance Abuse Program (SAP) was so touchy and eye opening because it was motivating and inspiring at the same time. The inmates were advised on how to gradually stop their addiction with real life examples of other inmates in similar circumstances given. They were also encouraged on ways to develop a positive thinking mentality. A few of them had their substance abuse problems mentioned in their court cases. However, some were quick to defend themselves
There are community-based programs that were noted during the course of doing rounds. Some of these include assisting former inmates in their quest to readjust to normal life in the community and ensuring that they are reintegrated into the society. They are even given pointers on how to relate to their families as they embark on a journey to rebuild their lives. Extension services like granting of recommendations for easy access to community resources by prison officials to reformed inmates were also witnessed. This was seen as a way to foster good behavior among inmates during their time in prison. Additionally, there was a General Education development (GED) program in which qualified professors come to the prison grounds and evaluate the progress of an inmate’s academic ability after which tests are administered. This aids in keeping them focused and prevents them from being idle. It is also a safe bet for faster integration upon release due to the educational background. The practicum concludes with a final appearance in a courtroom whereby yet another offender is pleading for leniency.

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Subway Sandwiches Delivery and Logistics

Supply Management based on Subway Restaurants
The Subway restaurant is one of the most famous fast food restaurants in America. One of their most common foods is the Subway sandwiches. Just as the name suggests, it started off in the subway stations, but it is one of the biggest food deliverer in America today. This restaurant is among the largest single brand businesses not only in the country, but also in the world. It has approximately 40 000 restaurants, and this means that it has a very complex system of management. In order to be as successful as Subway is, proper business management is mandatory. Supply management is also very important because it determines where and when products are released into the target market. This paper will focus on the logistics, delivery and receiving process of this particular business with regards to supply management.
One of the factors that make Subway one of the most recognized businesses in supply management is their high quality customer service. This is very relevant because every delivery and receiving of orders goes through the customer service. The importance of great customer service in supply management cannot be ignored. It is also true that the company has worked closely with the suppliers of most of their products.
In supply management, company has to start logistics from the ground level. This means that they have to make sure that their suppliers are not only good but when there are cases of droughts; they will still be able to provide the expected quality for the expected price. This strategy has helped the Subway restaurants to offer affordable meals during and after the recession. Logistics is also only possible because of customer service. It is the maintenance of the relationship with their suppliers that ensured the expansion of the restaurant by 6 000 chains between 2008 and 2010; a period at which the recession was at its peak.
In terms of delivery, the restaurant has ensured that their delivery process is effortless. This is important as it shows reliability. One of the most common delivery plans is the Subway school delivery program. This program allows the company to supply their products to schools. The fact that they offer several ways in which the schools can get their products also makes the company the first choice for food supply in most state schools. The company allows schools to either purchase already made food or make the foods in their own school kitchens. The company also has many trucks that are instilled with the right equipment to ensure ease in delivery. The trucks are normally used to deliver in and around state borders. The receiving process is also very simple. The company, like any other company that delivers products, has to register the places in which their products are delivered. This is important because the company can keep track of where their products are loved and where they have to target.
In conclusion, Subway has been successful because they manage their business well. One of the ways in which they do this is by ensuring quality supply management. They have done this through great customer service. This enhances their relationship with their clients they have also invested in making their suppliers comfortable. This has helped them survive even during a recession.

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Real estate development and investment course

Introduction
Most property today (big and small) is big business and has very high returns on values invested. However, as is on other businesses, it is affected by some external factors negatively. These factors are briefly described below together with the method of lowering the effect of these factors on the investment. This is achieved by the use of REIT’s in which using a brief description, investors invest in them instead of directly owning property. The aim of this essay is to show the risks (particularly liquidity risk) and how they can be partially dealt with while the objective is to show that there is a safer investment route in the property business, which is in the use of REIT’s.
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Managerial Concepts From iPadAir

Introduction
The news is primarily about Apple’s latest version of a tablet. It has launched a new tablet into the market, which goes by the stylish name iPadAir. This tablet is much smaller than the iPad Mini and a whole lot lighter. It went on sale on November 1, 2013 and includes many new and exciting features. In addition, it also has various software whose unique characteristics enable the user to create content or materials with ease. It further states that one of the tablet’s significant features is its physical attributes and this formed part of its main selling points. A list of other features to be found in this new device is also given with their usefulness provided under each feature.
Discussion
This news is related to management concepts because Apple applies key concepts in the design, production and distribution of the tablet that are familiar with management concepts. Apple has leveraged on its brand name to come up with a hip new tablet in a market that is flooded with others from companies such as Google and Amazon. Having produced tablets before, this is a kind of vertical integration in which a company extends “…activities included in its value chain (Crossan, Rouse, Fry and Killing 128).” More so, the detailed engineering that is evident in the design and outward look of the iPadAir means that the company is targeting a specific niche in the market place. These are bound to be the people who are image conscious and technologically savvy. They are also young and have reasonable disposable income.
Having diversified from being a primarily computer maker company, Apple has been able to enter the tablet market arena and with this new gadget, it has gathered a huge competitive advantage through the latest features available in the news article. These include higher internet speed connection, slimmer, longer battery life and more storage capacity for tablet-specific applications. From the article, it is clear that competitors like Amazon are already feeling the heat of the new product and have started discrediting it in a bid to dissuade more customers from buying the iPadAir.
Nevertheless, the article mentions how Apple has stuck to its revolutionary strategy of producing sleek but slimmer products and judging by the sales, it is reaping handsomely from that. It also talks about how the Word application is faster and free on this new ipad yet other competitors charge a $100 a year for the subscription version. This indicates that Apple has a corporate market penetration strategy whereby they have invested in superior technology and make products that come with incentives in order to attract as many customers as possible.
Conclusion
The price is stated as $499 and this is justified by the several new features that make the iPadAir such an amazing tablet to handle (Jaroslovsky 1). Consequently, the issue of pricing is brought onto focus because only a quality product at the right price can guarantee increased volumes of sales. Therefore, since the price is decided at managerial level, then proper implementation of its strategy is required. It concludes by saying that the new tablet does not include the Touch ID feature without giving reasons. This could however signal a future shift in Apple’s design. Should the customers demand for its inclusion, then the company would undergo a co-evolution whereby new creative alternatives have to be sought to meet the ever-growing demand for the latest technologically developed gadgets.

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Middle East Music

Our SCE 101 class invited a guest speaker, David Roller who is an IT director of Commerce Bank. He studied science, math, English, philosophy, and economics. He is the first IT director I have heard who does not like using emails.
Roller gave us a talk about how to engage the audience. He mentioned that the best way to engage the audience is by using body language and tailoring one’s response to their understanding. Roller has great experience on the importance of verbal communication. He said that small discussions are better especially if they constitute between 3-5 people. He is also experienced in translating technical text to layman’s text. Roller gave his preferences of small groups. He talked that ideally, he prefers a group of 3 to 5 people. This is because larger groups take a long time to commence and have higher chances of developing conflicts. He said that in order to tailor your response, it is important to know your audience, use advanced technical terms very selectively and be very direct.
Roller spoke in very simple vocabulary. In his presentation, he treated each slide as a paragraph. He frequently used hand gestures and engaged the audience with questions. His presentations were detailed with visuals which helped to reinforce his points.
He talked in great detail about engaging the audience. He stated that the best way to go about it is by asking questions to the audience, know them, know them and use appropriate words and reinforce them with hand gestures. Roller said that this usually helps in cases where there are groups and solo presentations, where one is discussing with different people and in general speaking.
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Service Setting in a Mall

Service setting is sometimes called a servicescape. It includes all aspects of the physical environment that the consumer and providers interact. Service setting has serious impacts on the process of service delivery and customer’s perception of these services. In many ways, service setting is like packaging for physical goods. It can facilitate or hinder the use of the product and can serve an important function (Kurtz, 2013). During my recent visit to my favorite mall, I visited Macy, panda express, McDonald’s and Starbucks. The counter at Macy offers free make-ups. The order counter at Panda express offers a unique ordering pattern. It offers a serving line where an individual can see all the options that are available for ordering. One starts with rice/chow or rice/fried selection, then progresses from there. They offer service menu in two items combination. Starbucks offers free Wifi services to its consumers. This service enables customers to relax and entertain themselves as they eat or wait to be served. McDonald’s offers drive through services where an individual can order when leaving the mall. McDonald’s offers arch card payment service. Arch card is a prepaid card that gives customers a quick and convenient paying method.
What was done right?
McDonald’s arch card brought convenience to customers. It made customers pay for their meals. The drive through was done right at McDonald’s as customers in a hurry are given a chance to get their food fast (Kurtz, 2013). The counter at Macy not only helps the business benefit itself but it also benefits the customers as they get a free make up after their hair is done.
What was done wrong?
The counter order at Panda is difficult to figure out. I was ordering food there for the first time and I found difficulty in ordering.
Automating option
The ordering at panda should be automated to create ease during the ordering process. During ordering, the company can install machines that can be pressed to send orders to the chefs. This will make customers find ease in ordering the restaurants delicacies.
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The Cuban Missile Crisis

The Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962 was the closet the world ever came to a nuclear war. The crisis was part of the Cold war strategy by the USSR and US to fight their wars in different countries. This crisis began after the USSR decided to install some of its missiles in Cuba. Under the guidance of President Kennedy, the United States decided to block the Cuban island with a number of naval ships to stop President Khrushchev from bringing in addition missile arms (Hilsman, 1996). This was to dupe Khrushchev that part of the plan was to invade Cuba if the USSR persisted with the transfer of missiles. After prolonged tensions, both leaders understood that the tensions would lead to a nuclear disaster and decided to negotiate peacefully. Kennedy’s management of information during the crisis was vital in stopping the escalation of public anxiety. For a long time, the public did not know that there was a crisis between the two countries. Though there were rumors circulating about existing tensions, no journalist had a clue that it involved nuclear warheads (Stern, 2012). Informing the public about the crisis was the last thing on Kennedy’s mind because he wanted the situation to pass unnoticed. This crisis is a perfect example of where international relations guide decision making and the factor model used predicts the outcome of such crises.
Diffusing the crisis was of paramount importance because it would have led to the worst nuclear war since the Japanese attack in 1945. Kennedy’s decision to block Cuba with a fleet of naval ships is regarded as one of the best decisions to stop the USSR from setting up a base in the country (Allison, 1999). Though Khrushchev reasons for moving missiles to Cuba were unknown, the political tensions between the two countries created a lot of anxiety. The decisions taken by the two leaders were quite fundamental in diffusing the crisis. Kennedy relied on a well-structured decision making model led by the attorney general Robert Kennedy. Therefore, his sources of information were accurate and this led to formidable decision making. Using Allison’s three factor model of decision making, the US led by President Kennedy approached the crisis from a different perspective (Allison, 1999). For instance, the blockade of Cuba would not necessarily lead to war but would force Russia to make the next move. With Republicans in congress putting a lot of pressure on Kennedy, he decided to ignore the diplomatic format of negotiations. He worked on the USSR’s government flaws and forced them to back down.
On the contrary, President Khrushchev approached the crisis from a traditional perspective. Being a communist leader, he was the sole decision maker throughout the process. Information retrieved from archives of the crisis offers a bleak presentation of USSR’s activities (Allison, 1999). For instance, these archives show that Khrushchev did not have a team of advisors or reliable sources of information. He relied on a traditional model of decision making that did not give him the correct information. As a result, he was forced to give in so quickly to US demands leading to diffusion of the tension. Following his decision to give in to Kennedy’s demands, Khrushchev decided to point out US missiles in Turkey as a scape goat to his actions in Cuba. Kennedy did not respond publicly to these assertions instead deciding to send the attorney general to secretly negotiate with USSR ambassador for their quiet removal (Hilsman, 1996).

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Environmental chemistry, sampling and analysis

Question 5: Preparation of Air sample PM10
An analysis of the atmospheric particulate matter is important in order to identify the composition for any metals. The PM10 can be analyzed through the Standard Operation Procedure (SOP), which is an accepted standard by the Environmental Protection Agency. The SOP is crucial in determining the amount of varied emissions such as dust or metals from mines, industries, or agricultural regions. The PM10 needs to be passed through a high volume air sampler that has been recommended by EPA. The sampler needs to possess certain characteristics such as symmetric inlet that has been vertically inclined. The flow rates of the inlet should range between 36 to 44ft3/min. The inlet must have controlled flow and a recorder to evaluate the time vis-à-vis the density of the sample. The PM10 sampling will be carried out carefully to avoid any poor calibrations that may interfere with extraction and precipitation processes. After the sample collection, the sample needs to be prepared carefully for metal detection. Before analysis of the PM10 sample, the sample needs to be extracted and cleaned up. Several methods such as soxhlet extraction, reflux, and organic solvents can be implemented in order to prepare the sample. For instance, the PM10 sample may be extracted through exposure to acetone for a minimum of 24 hrs. The process would also entail dilution of the sample by double amounts of water. After the extraction, the extracts and PUF-plugs must be fractionated through a silica gel container. In case the PM10 sample is greater than six PAHs, it would be suitable to extract it through toluene solvent. It is essential to handle the sample with care to avoid any contaminations that may impede on successful metal determinations. The choice of method to be used in sample preparation largely depends on chromatography technique implemented for PAH analysis. The sample analysis may be conducted using the Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) because it is effective in identifying and separating the metal content from the PM10.
Steps for Sample Preparation
1. The sample needs to undergo extraction through various solvents depending on quantity
2. It is important to ensure the sample is cleaned up to remove impurities in order to facilitate easier metal detection and separation.
3. Precipitation must take place in order to dilute the sample with varied proportions of water.
4. The filter extracts and PUF plugs must be fractionated to boost metal determination.
5. Choice of sample analysis method
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Marketing research

Q1Calculating the required sample size
Mean statistic =±0.8
Confidence levels =99%
n0= Z2pq/e2 = (2.96)2(0.1)(0.1)/( 0.01)2
n=64
Q2. Sample1= proportion =50%
Sample size =400 z=value at 99% confidence levels =2.58
Sample proportion β =200/400= 0.5
Margin of error = z ρ(1- β)/n
=2.58 (0.5)(0.5)/400
=2.58*0.025=0.065
Sample 2= proportion=55%
Sample size =300
Sample proportion β= 165/300=0.55
Margin of error = z ρ(1- β)/n
=2.58 (0.55)(0.55)/300
=2.58 *0.0318=0.082
The margin of error between the two samples is 0.082-0.065= 0.017 hence the sample results are not statistically different at 99% confidence level.
3 sample size=300 Sample proportion=70%
Null hypothesis: the product will not be liked by more than 70% of consumers
At 95% confidence level z=1.96
Sample proportion β=210/300 =0.7
Margin of error = z ρ(1- β)/n
=1.96 (0.7)(0.3)/300
=1.96*0.026=0.05
The null hypothesis is rejected since the margin of error is negligible
The most important error to avoid is Type II error because it can lead to acceptance of false null hypothesis
Q4. x̅ =200 SD=50 Sample size n=35 confidence level=99% tvalue at 99% =2.98
±2.98 =±29.8
=200±29.8

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Project Fianace / Development

Objective
The objective of this research paper is to analyze two main investments made in the recent past. The first part of the paper analyzes an investment that did very well in returns compared to the S&P 500 index while the second part seeks to analyze an investment that did not do well with the S&P 500 index. The paper also analyzes the reasons that prevailed in the market to cause the two scenarios. Finally, part three of the paper will discuss portfolio assessment.
Methodology
The research paper uses the S&P 500 index as the basis of the financial analysis as the main methodology. This is an important method of analyzing the financial performance of any given investment in the stock market. The S&P 500 index is important in the capitalization of 500 strong companies with a common stock on the NYSE.
Outline
Part 1: A Successful Investment
During the financial year of 2012/2013, an investment of $2,000to buy 100 shares of stock provided an annual return of 9.42% compared to the 12.3% of the S&P 500 in the same period. This 2.88% difference that can be because the S&P 500 index in the market produced better returns than the previous financial period. Looking at the previous financial years, the return on the investment had been 7.3% bringing about 2.12% increase gap between managed funds in this financial year, which indicates a better performance of the investment.
During the period, the expense ratio of the average fund, implying the average expense that a fund charges its shareholders annually, stood at an average of 1.3% during the period. However, in the previous year, the expense ratio stood at 1.5% average, implying that the average expense ratio of the two periods is 1.4%. The fund also bought its holdings at a rapid pace. During this period, the turnover occurs at an average rate of 85% annually. This implies that my investment had an increase in 15% of its shares it started with in the previous year, which explains its increased performance in return compared to the S&P 500 index (Dynkin, 2007). The transaction costs also remained substantially low and eventually reducing the amount of returns lost annually.
The fund also had limited taxable short-term gains eventually improving its return performance. Likewise, the fund had very low turnover ratio and with low brokerage transaction fees, equating to the improved returns. Finally, less portfolio turnover in the fund enabled it to generate limited short-term gains that would otherwise attract high taxation. All these market scenarios enabled the investment perform well in the S&P 500 index when compared to its performance in the previous period.
Part 2: A Failed Investment
Poor market conditions and unfavorable financial issues led to a poor performance in a mutual fund investment return compared to the S&P 500 index return over the same period. An investment of $1,000to buy 100 shares of stock provided an annual return of 3.2% compared to the 11.4% of the S&P 500 at the same period. This is a difference of 8.2% between the mutual fund investment return and that of S&P 500. The reason for this poor return in investment is owing to the factors that prevailed at the time. For instance, the fund sold most of its holding at very high rates that stood at 98%. This is an unusual in investment situation, leaving the mutual fund with a little as 2% increase in the shares every financial year from what the fund started with the previous year (Meucci, 2005). Definitely, very low increment in annual shares would definitely lead to a very poor return compared to that of the S&P 500 index.
Secondly, the transaction costs at the period were so high than expected. Increase in transaction costs implies a lot of money lost during the period translates to poor returns. The fund experienced high levels of short-term earnings that guaranteed high taxation rates. This eventually led to the payment of more taxes, further diminishing the ability to high returns on investment (Avadhani, 2010). There is also the poor performance of the sector and industry of investment. In most cases, the performance of the sector that the company is in plays a vital in the determination of stock prices of the company. Most of the times, stock prices of the general companies within the same sector move in the same direction depending on market forces. This is because market forces and conditions in the industry affect the industry’s companies in the same manner. Therefore, poor performance of the industry greatly affected the stock prices of the investment, consequently leading to its poor performance (Spiceland, 2009). With poor performance in the industry came high portfolio turnover ratios that finally led to the generation of high levels of short-term gains that led to increased taxation.
Another major setback in the investment is the dividend. In the stock market, after the announcement of a dividend, there is the possibility of increased or reduced prices of the stock. In essence, the stock price may increase by a certain amount that might be so close to the amount of the dividend per share amount (McTague, 2011). However, in this case, the stock price dropped on the ex-dividend date by an amount close to that of the dividend per share amount. This is also one of the reasons to the poor performance of the investment.
Part 3: Portfolio Assessment
Asset allocation portfolio aims at balancing the risks and rewards by appointing a portfolio’s assets in relation to individual goals and objectives in relation to tolerance and, risks, and investment horizon. The three main classes of asset allocation are cash, fixed income, and equities. The choice of cash for asset allocation is the most important factor that it is a risk-free asset and therefore has the ability to encounter uncertainties in terms of returns (Appel, 2010). The greater the uncertainty surrounding the investment environment, the greater the risk posed to future returns. However, with the use of cash in asset allocation, investors would have the sure way reducing the uncertainties and improving the possibilities of increased future returns.
In the current stock market, there is a recurrent deep and sudden decrease in prices as well as anxiety pertaining to the future direction of the market and unpredictable changes. Most of these anxieties lie mostly on the banking industry and the need for a healthy financial stability of long-term bond users (Hiriyappa, 2008). All these factors play a major role in causing a massive rush for investors to focus on risk free assets in asset allocation. However, although cash is the major dimension for this asset allocation in this investment, it is important to note that there some risks that should be accounted for.
It is also important to carry out the fixed income asset allocation since it adds 10% to the nominal fixed income allocation. This is because a typical balanced portfolio has an allocation of 10% cash, 40% fixed income, and 50% of equities. In this regard, it is very important to add 10% of the original income allocation to counter additional to governments and corporate (Heck, 2006). Finally, the use of equity is also another important dimension. However, the choice of international equities is important in the sense that it brings about diversification and that by adding international stocks, an investor increases the chances of getting a high portfolio. Finally, the difference in the two asset allocations is due to differences in individual investment needs, risks, adaptability, and the investment industry. However, the diversified portfolio is better because of the fact that it spreads risk across a wide class of assets, thereby increasing the possibility of improved returns.
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E-Media Design

1. Think of these various media categories:

• Music Concerts
• Sports Events
• TV News
• Documentaries
• Stage Plays

What would be the gains and losses in using interactive media to supplement how they are traditionally delivered?
Interactive media has completely revolutionalised the way we receive information and also the way we consume it. There are availability of so many online resources resource has provided a lot of gains for the people who use interactive media all over the world. Nowadays we see people using Facebook, Instagram, amazon and other forms of interactive media to purchase products, to relay news and even promote a new book or music album.
Millions of blogs and other social media sites have been beneficial in the sense that they are instant, easy to be updated and also cost effective to most of the users who cannot afford shipping and also physical access to some of the products. Interactive media has also been beneficial to upcoming talents as they are able to send their samples and even market their new products to a vast number of audiences.
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Sperm Donor

Overview
Sperm donation is the process whereby a qualified male (sperm donor) who has undergone various health tests provides his sperm to be used for insemination. The major requirements are that of being of between 18 to 40 years, free of any serious medical conditions and should not have a history of inherited disorders in the family. Individuals who seek to be donors have to undergo screenings on genetic analysis and blood screening. The ejaculated sperms of successful candidates are collected in containers that contain cryopreservative solution and stored after being frozen with liquid nitrogen at a degrees of -321F.W until when needed for insemination.
The process of insemination can either be through natural insemination or through artificial methods. Natural insemination involves a sperm donor getting sexually involved with a female while artificial insemination involves processes such as intrauterine insemination (IUI) which involves a donated sperm being inserted into a woman’s uterus or through vitro fertilization.
A sperm donor can opt to either do it as a private arrangement or be a public donor through sperm banks. Private sperm donation involves making of private and direct arrangements between donors and recipients. On the other hand public donors work with sperm banks that do identify healthy and eligible sperm donors by subjection to various requirements that usually vary from one institution to another.
Sperm banks collect sperms from donors, extract them from the rest of the materials in a semen and ensure their fitness for insemination. Medical procedures such as screening, number of sperms in an ejaculate, sperm cell motility and sperm cell morphology is also conducted.
Ethical Questions
Ethics refers to moral principles and rights of conduct guiding sperm donation. This can be looked at from various areas which include factors such as:
The rights of a sperm donor
It is the right of the donors to keep their identities unknown. Clients do not have any rights to identify the donors through whatsoever means and trying to do that would be against the law. This right extends to relieve donors of any responsibility related to pregnancy and biological offspring of his sperm.
The rights of clients receiving the sperms
Clients have a right to be updated with information about the sperm to be implanted in them. This includes benefits and limitations existing in relation to the sperms. This absolves the sperm bank from any accountability in case of any arising situation
Choosing of a sperm donor
Sperm banks do not have a standard procedure of selecting donors and this gives room for each sperm bank to design their own standards and procedures of selecting donors. They are only required to stick to proper laboratory standards of conducting tests and maintain a high respect to informed consent.
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Material and manufacturing

Introduction
Manufacturing is the procedure of converting unprocessed materials, parts or components into complete products that satisfy customer expectations and specifications. Manufacturing commonly uses physical or machine labor, tools, formulation or chemical and biological process set up with separation of work in a large scale setup.
Manufacturing processes are steps from first to last which raw materials are changed into an end product. The manufacturing procedure starts with the construction of materials from which design is made, normally called a bill of materials which are subsequently customized through manufacturing processes to form the requisite part.
Manufacturing processes include heating, treating or coating, reshaping or machining. The manufacturing process includes checks and tests for total quality assurance throughout planning, manufacturing and planning the production process before actual manufacturing.
Material selection is the process of designing a physical object. In product design, the aim of material selection is to cut costs while meeting required performance goals. Organized selection of the finest material begins with properties and costs of applicant materials. Organized selection for applications with multiple criteria can be complex. (Dieter, George E.1997 pg 58)
How to make a remote control
A remote control’s work is to translate keyed signals into infrared light signals received by a television set. A TV remote comprises a printed circuit board that contains the electronics and battery contacts, an integrated circuit or chip, a diode, a transistor, a resonator, resistors and capacitors. Near battery points there is a resistor and a capacitor.
In the circuit, the chip detects any key that is pressed and then translates sequentially for each key. The chip then sends the signal to the transistor and amplifies it. (Silicon Labs Inc. 2010retrieved 11/25/13)
The circuit board is made of a thin piece of fiberglass intertwined with very thin copper wires etched on its exterior with contact points for buttons that are made from a thin rubber sheet. Each button has a black conducive disk that touches the contacts on the circuit board and then connecting them to the chip for connection. The light emitting diode is invisible to the human eye. Generally, the operation of the remote starts with pressing a key that completes a specific connection. The chip then senses and identifies what key was pressed and produces a mores-code-line signal explicit to that particular button. The transistor then amplifies the signal and sends it to the LED that translates it into infrared light. The sensor on the TV sees the signal acts appropriately. There is then a plastic casing that holds every component of the remote in position. (Silicon Labs Inc. 2010 retrieved 11/25/13)
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The communication and financial revolution

The reading examines recent growths and developments in the global economy in the last Century. According to the article, the global economy is growing tremendously and there has been an increase in integration. This has led to a richer global economy. Based on information from the article, global economic growth intensified between 1960 and 1980 the average annual growth rate was at 6%. However, this declined in the 1980s to an average of 2.4%. The reading examines how the growth has led to disparities in global economies with some countries growing at different rates. For example, the article cites that Switzerland’s GDP had grown to $ 36,300 in 1991 while that of Nigeria was $ 278. This disparity has led to a rise large multinational companies that do not hold the values of their countries of origin. Of interest is the role that technology has been playing at integrating the global economy.
From the assigned reading, information on the growth of technology and the rise of multinational companies has been highly engaging. It is interesting to note how multinational companies have been playing an important role in trying to bridge the global disparity gaps between the rich and poor economies. The reading examines how multinational companies have been able to expand their operations globally due to the presence of communication tools that enable them to communicate over the global market. Technology has also brought about a significant reduction in currency notes transactions and has led to an increase in electronic transactions. This has helped to enhance the operation of these multinationals. In addition, they have helped to reduce the global economic imbalance as they try to increase their profits and global outreach.
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Discharge Plan for Congestive Heart Failure

Introduction
There is no doubt that Healthcare services are very crucial and critical for the survival of humankind. People are affected by different health conditions. Therefore, healthcare providers including psychiatric consultants, physicians and nurses must always be ready with practical solutions and strategies for managing varied disease conditions (Rice, 2006, p. 58). Moreover, healthcare personnel must devise appropriate care and discharge plans to guarantee full recovery of the patients. Because the country’s population is growing bigger, more and more healthcare providers such as hospitals and clinics are finding themselves unable to deal with the relatively number of patients who come to them seeking treatment. During emergencies or disease outbreaks, some healthcare facilities are forced to refer some patients to other care facilities to avoid overstretching their resources. With this scenario in mind, it is important to consider the option of home treatment for patients with chronic diseases that may be serious but do not really require admissions or hospitalization for them to get better. Further, the healthcare personnel must prepare workable and elaborate discharge plans, especially for patients with congestive heart failure. In most cases, an insufficient discharge plan and a patient’s subsequent non-adherence to medication and instruction, provided upon discharge, are often indicated as potential factors for relapse and rehospitalisation. This research paper will engage in an extensive review of literature concerning the home treatment of a patient with congestive heart failure with the aim of creating an elaborate discharge plan for such patients. With the discharge plan in place, the patients will be able to receive treatment at home thereby creating more space for other patients in health care institutions.
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THE USE OF ELECTRIC DEVICES IN SCHOOL

Introduction
The world is changing with change in technology. Computers and mobile phones are some of the electronic devices used in schools. Education changes brought about by technology has occurred on both communications and delivery of information. Children joining pre-school meets colorful environments filled with many creative games which are incorporated in every lesson. The mind of young grade child has become so big to accommodate new tasks which include more crafts and playing of word games. By help of technology, numbers are now learnt through activity, quizzes and print out as away of making children more interested to learn them. Teachers use the idea of coloring to younger grade children for spelling practice. Hard subjects such mathematics is taught easily by use of graphs, counting sticks, solving puzzles or even connecting numbers. However much Technology can be congratulated, it also brings about negative effect on student. For –instance, use of mobile phones in schools can drive away the attention of students which may make the teaching more challenging. In many ways technology has made life easily, however, parents, teachers and administrator warn the use of electric devices(not limited to cell phone and laptops) in school may negative effect on a student’s education.
Technology in schools
Technology has made the world to be smaller than it seams to be. Student across the world can meet each other while sited at their desks through video link. Students have benefited much from developments of sites such as Glovico which enables students globally learn foreign languages in groups through the guidance of only one teacher from a different country. Nelly (Glovico 11) argues that interactions brought about by Globalization bears opportunities learning newly. Technology has created respect for cultural values and also spiritual which nelly (Glovico 11) calls “cult technology” research further argues that Science and technology commands more respect than any other field in todays world. Well updated library helps students do essays or research papers with ease. Libraries without computer labs, makes it difficult for students to use internet and vital resources such as digital encyclopedias to get the research materials they need for their research papers. Software such as Encyclopedia Britannica is used by many schools to enable students do their project papers. Science and technology commands more respect than any other field in todays world. Distance learning students have been rested the burden of many emails to their teachers either to pick their courses or to send their completed assignments. Teachers can posts the courses over the internet as the students also do the same with their completed assignments. Thanks to the technology which has made worker easier for both the students and teachers. Technology gives the answer to many schools with constrained budgets who are wondering how they are going to send their students on field trips as outlined in the course of study. Students may suffer incomplete courses if they have not attended to these field trips. Technology has lightened this burden because student can attend web seminars virtually by using internet. Museums are better know for web seminars NASA for example has a programmed that gives a leeway for the students to communicate with astronauts in space while they are sill in their classroom. Technology has made it easier for teachers and guardians of young grade children to help them learn basics of counting and spelling. Young grade children take computer games as fun and therefore learn faster than using playing board. All these useful application of technology play an important role in disseminating information especially among learners. Without proper channels of communication, learning cannot take place and this has been observed in schools that have poor technological equipment that teachers and students can use in accomplishing their learning missions.
The use of electric devices in school has been on the rise. For instance, more than 97% of young people in United States can access internet in away or the other. Internet accessibility to most of children and teens is causing harmful offences against them. Offences such as cyber bullying victimization have received much attention over recent years (Tokunga, 2010) has tried to define bullying on his report conducted recently.in the same report he has given the differences between cyber bulling and tradition bullying. Relationship between cyber bullying and tradition bullying and the divergence between them are also explained in the same report. The report also tried to explain the inconstancies found in literature. Approximately 20 to40% of all young people in United States has been cyber bulled one time in their life. Cyber bulling victimization can not be predicted using demographic variables like gender and age though evidence shows that victimization can affect academic performance and psychosocial problems. The report concludes by outlining several areas of concern in cyber bullying research and discusses ways that future research can remedy them (Tokunaga, 2010).
According to Lewin (2010), more than 40 percent of the students who used media heavily got lower grades compared to others. He further found out that those who spent more time on social media got grade C’s and below compared to those who spent like 3 hours a day or less on media. Those who used media heavily were likely to report that they are bore or sad than the light users. Heavy users of social media are likely to cause more trouble or get into trouble with their parents and guardians (Lewin, 2010).
Bakerlusk and Neuhauser2012 conducted a researcher to know how students and the faculty perceived the use of electric devices such as mobile phone and laptops in classroom. They found out that student showed much willingness to embrace technology in classroom than the faculty. Male students were more showed high degree of willingness to accommodate use of technology in class than female students. The research further shows that undergraduate students showed less concern over the use of laptops in school than the graduate. Therefore, policies should be made to bridge gap between the faculty and the students’ willingness to use electric devices in classroom (Baker, Lusk, & Neuhauser 2012). Modernization of learning cannot be achieved if the use of electric devices is banned in school. The only thing that should be controlled is how they are used and when the students use them moderation of the use of these devices is inevitable if good results are to be obtained by all students in learning institutions. In their study, Baya’a, Nimer and Daher (2010) used Grounded theory approach as the wanted to know and describe the learning of high school students as they went on with mathematical activities both in class or outside the classroom they used mobile phone to investigate mathematical objects and relations. After their study, the researchers found out that use of mobile phone in trying to solve mathematics problem, have a series of consequences and problems. Students found it difficult to connect the subject with the day to day life and had different perception on the nature of mathematics. Teachers on the other had found it difficult to control the class. The researchers found out that that principals and coordinating teachers were less involved the whole mathematical activities (Baya’a, Nimer & Daher 2010)
According to Tindell and Bohlander (2012) use of electric devices like mobile phone has won entered deep into academic settings recently. This has caused suffering to many institution of higher learning and their faculties (Tindell & Bohlander 2012) conducted a survey on 269 students at northern eastern university. The survey wanted to find out the manner in which college student use mobile phone in classrooms and the frequency in which the use them. The study focused mostly the use of text messaging and it was discovered that more than 90% of student were bringing their mobile phone in classroom daily. According to the survey most students used mobile phone during class time and others during exam time. This in it self deviates the concentration of the student from class to the outside world and student of this manner are vulnerable to failure. According the study, most student confessed that teachers were not aware when the student were using the mobile devices either to text or browse the internet. With the use of mobile phone in classroom, it becomes so difficult to manage the class and capture the attention of the student (Tindell & Bohlander 2012).
Domitrek and Raby (2008) conducted a study on Are you listening to me? Space, context and perspective in the regulation of Mp3 players and cell phones in secondary and found that even though electronic devices like sonny Walkman have been there and were being used widely more than two decades ago, no policy has even been formulated governing the use of electric devices in schools. The study noticed conflict of interest between the teachers’ administrators and the students over various subject (Domitrek and Raby 2008).
Research showered that most students were comfortable in using mobile phone as compared to teachers who found it inappropriate to use mp3 and mobile phone in schools.
. Mostly the study focused on group participants who seemed to use electronics as part of their day to day lives; this group was comfortable with daily use of electric devices. Students also find pleasure and desire when the school compound is secure enjoyable and its academically conducive that is when equipped with all manner of social media enhancing devices such as mobile phones. Unlike the students teachers and administrators within the school view electronic devices as unnecessary devices to and not essential for learning. Some Teachers and administrators even assume responsibilities of preventing student from having these devices in their classroom while many argue that these are not good for security reasons. To them, these devices allowed at school, they might facilitate all manner of criminal activities such as drug trafficking and cheating of exams and may pose as distractions and lead to stealing. On Their role in institution, administrators are likely than students to see the school as a big personal space. Students, teachers and administrators evidently show different positions relation to how they perceive institution spaces depending on their roles and responsibilities in schools (Domitrek and Raby 2008).
The board of every school is the one with mandate of creating and amending any rule within the school while teachers, administrators and students may express their own concern and views regarding the use of electric devices in schools this lack of relevant inputs of teachers and administrators on making of policies regarding regulating electric devices in schools leads to the students not owning up the rules and in turn tend to break them once they made. Lack of input of student on the regulatory policies of electronic devices, student fail to understand that they are also part of the implementation of the policies made may the school board therefore students should be incorporated when the school rules are made to avoid frequent tassels between the school management and the student and to enhance proper learning environment for both the students, administrators and teachers. Board
Council meetings help in management of most of public school although the final answer lies on the principal and the board of the school. Some teachers and the administrators had an argument that administrators are administrators were implementing rules without reflecting or understanding the classroom dynamism and the sacrifice that teachers need to deal with on daily basis. With such gaps between stakeholder’s students, teachers and administrators on the regulation of personal electronic devices in schools, communication and participation across all stakeholders seems vital to create successful policy (Domitrek and Raby 2008).
According to Domitrek and Raby (2008), increased use of electronic devices has caused many struggles in northern America which are not likely to go down as the use of mobile phones still increases. The study shows that banning of electronic devices in schools is a problematic in many schools. The surveys found out that bans on electronic devices is smoothing that student did not find favorable to them but teachers finds it as a way of eliminating struggles between them and the students. However, some teachers argued that electronic devices could be useful and special circumstances for- instance in case of emergency (Domitrek and Raby 2008).
According to (Domitrek and Raby 2008), findings, they made other three observations which emerged from their study. They first found out that, all rules concerning electronic devices needed clear rationales. Most likely students would accept and follow rules if those rules are explained to him or her and a more elaborate ways which the student will understand clearly. Another observation was that mobile phones and personal music might be the same in away or another but they still have differences in their functions and these differences should be realized when making rules. Finally, there should be explanations about broader behaviors around what is the better as considered the usage of electronic devices such mobile phones in meeting places and broader explanation on the uses and abuses of electronic devices. The research shows that most students have adopted best etiquette on the best ways of using their electronic devices for instance when out classroom. But still teachers and administrators have denied the arguments that not all students are able to use their electronic devices effectively and where required of them to do so. Finally, dismissing the use of electronic devices completely is to luck sense of possible beneficial use of electronic devices in some situations (Domitrek and Raby 2008).
In any education setting, if the entire student have powerful electronic devices to use for learning what happens is that new options emerge and the benefits that comes with the use of technology also increases both in school and outside world. Research has However, shown that is not automatic. High levels of accessibility to technology are changing schooling. The nature of that transformation is growing rapidly with the outlines emerging. The learning activities are increasing and becoming dynamic each and every day. Relationships and Attitudes toward school are changing community change. The conflict between new learning models and old learning models are emerging which are bringing tensions in the school environment. Research shows that the gap between the benefit and the cost is widening up each and every day. Unlike old days higher order skills are becoming more pressing coupled with international competitiveness are now the national priority. Research shows that more schools will have to invest in technology in that every student will have his or her own computer for maximum education productivity it is argued that in USA public schools are already offering one computer for every student for better learning environment. Research further shows that more than 24% of public schools in USA have transitioned to one computer for every student module (Peck & Sprenger 2008).
Conclusion
The above discussion reveals that the use of electric devices in school has both pros and cons. It should however be noted that modern methods of learning require careful integration of technology in the learning system in order to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of learning. The teachers as well as the parents should however realize that the use of technology must be closely monitored and supervised when possible to ensure that all the students take maximum advantage of the technology and not to use it for their personal purposes that may eventually affect their academic performances. In this case, school administrators must ensure that all students who have such devices notify the teachers and consult with the on how best they can use them to improve their academic performances. The fact that these devices are being misused by students cannot be denied but this does not justify the banning of the devices in schools. In other words, students should be encouraged to observe high level of discipline while handling the devises especially in schools. They should also be made aware of the negative consequences that arise as a result of misuse of these devices.

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Public Service (Voluntary Work)

There are numerous activities with regards to the day-to-day lives of people. People have different ways, means, and platforms through which they seek the rewarding feeling. There is a section of people who feel rewarded after their daily responsibilities at work, others who draw out the feeling of being rewarded from spending quality time with their loved ones, and those who feel rewarded by setting aside time to help people who are in need. Through personal experience, I can attest to the fact that voluntary work is rewarding in all the responsibilities contained therein. One of the greatest things a person can do with their life is to spend time attending to the less fortunate or people within the society who do not have the ability to pay back. When a person takes their time to engage in voluntary work, they do not do it for the pay. It is however important to note that the form of payment provided for in the course of voluntary work is more precious than money. The feeling of having set aside time to help out someone who will – most probably – be unable to pay you back is not only rewarding in the short term, but the long term as well (Coles, 1994).
Volunteer work is not only important for the well-being of the individual being served, but the entire country at large. A great section of the prosperity and progress within a country is dependent on voluntary work and other similar undertakings. It is almost impossible to explain the full importance of voluntary work within the public service. The public service in Saudi Arabia is popular due to the nature and level of voluntary service contained therein. The joint effort between volunteers and other parties in the public service ensures that the goals, visions, and mission that have been set are being constantly worked on with every new day. There are changes taking within the society on a daily basis. Working singlehandedly, the government is not the most efficient organ with regards to handling these changes. Working together with volunteers, the government is provided with numerous options through which it can ensure the changes in society are taken care of effectively (Coles, 1994).
Volunteer work is important as it ensures the issues taking place within a society are handled by more than one party. Every element of effort and or input into volunteer work helps to ease up the entire burden. The public is provided with the greatest responsibility with regards to ensuring that there is constant development within the society. Although the government is responsible for ensuring that there are resources in place to foster public development, there are sections of the environment that the government is unable to attend to effectively. Volunteers are the eyes, ears, and arms on the ground that ensure the resources provided by the government and other parties are utilized to the maximum benefit of each of the stakeholder presented in any society (Coles, 1994).
Personal experience with volunteer work
Personally, I have had my experience in volunteer work and I have lived to feel rewarded unto this day. My main area of volunteer work is within the health sector. I have worked as a volunteer within the Ministry of Health in Saudi Arabia. I have given slightly over a hundred hours in volunteer work. This time is divided over a section of days and there were unique responsibilities shaping up each day’s undertakings. Most of my volunteer work within the Ministry of Health in Saudi Arabia has been with the personnel department. Although volunteer work is rewarding, there are numerous challenges therein. As Coles, (1994) mentions in the call of service: A witness to idealism, a volunteer is pushed into this line of service due to a number of specific reasons. The reasons found in one person as their motivating factor to volunteer work are completely different when compared to another person’s reasons. Saudi Arabia is classified among the countries that are in need of voluntary service. The section of the public that is willing to set aside their time for the purpose of volunteer work is still minimal. Most people consider direct donations to be their best means through which they can give back to society. Although there is nothing bad with giving funds and other tangible goods to such a cause, it is important to underscore the importance of volunteers. When the kind-hearted people and the government have provided the required resources, it is the work of volunteers to ensure that the tangible resources are blended with intangible man hours to ensure the public benefits from public service to the maximum (Coles, 1994).
Challenge
Coles (1994) has mentioned in The call of service: A witness to idealism that some of the hazards such as anger, discouragement, despair, depression, frustration, and arrogance may impact volunteers in a negative way. This is the truth and I have personally come to terms with the message shared herein. Volunteer work not only requires that one be in a position to give his time and service, but also endure the different hardships that come with giving back to the society. Not every beneficiary of volunteer work is appreciative of the work being done by volunteers. Once in a while, a volunteer finds himself or herself attending to a person who is not appreciative of what they do and this leads to the volunteer being frustrated. One of the greatest sources of frustration for a volunteer is to learn the fact that a person is unappreciative of what they are doing and yet it is being done out of a clean heart and without pay (Coles, 1994).
Conclusion
Conclusively, it is evident to note that there is a great deal of importance attached to volunteer work. The public service is one of the greatest beneficiaries that exist with regards to volunteer work. There are different stakeholders and shareholders involved in voluntary work. Effectiveness in voluntary work is the sum of input from the different parties involved. This assignment and my time as a volunteer worker have helped me to come to terms with the importance of volunteer work from a first-hand point of view. Through volunteering in my country’s – Saudi Arabia’s – health ministry, I have learnt a couple of important things with regards to volunteer work and my country’s public service as well. One of the important observations that I have made in the course of my volunteer work is with regard to the numbers. There are very few people willing to take up volunteering responsibilities and this continues to impact the effectiveness of public service negatively (Coles, 1994).

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U452

Good Will Hunting is a movie that adequately represents various social, legal, and ethical considerations. In fact, the story depicted in the movie reveals significant emotional aspects from which individuals can learn a moral lesson. The dialogue between the main characters is realistic. Moreover, the director of the movie presents issues from the real life found appealing to the viewer, as they actually reflect important social and ethical dimensions of relationships. The main character, Mr. Hunting, is a 20-year-old male of Irish origin. Hunting is depicted as referred to a counselling therapy because of major anger issues, abandonment issues, and opposition demonstrated to authorities. Hunting was arrested for fighting and almost murdering a man, and thus the judge mandated the referral to a counselling therapy. Although Hunting appears an average person, the man has certain complex problems in terms of personality.
As described in the movie, Hunting demonstrates episodes of violence, and he targeted not only those he disliked but his friends as well. For instance, the jokes he makes with his friends often contain explicit signs of violence. Upon revealing the plot of the movie, the viewer soon comes to know that Hunting is introduced to Sean Maguire, who plays the role of a therapist. In an attempt to assess the personality of Hunting, it is important to consider his mathematical abilities as an inseparable part of his intellectual character. During his childhood, Hunting was not provided with any opportunities to demonstrate his potential in math, but when he started working as a janitor at MIT, he definitely proved his unique skills.
Yet it is important to note that Hunting’s childhood was quite problematic, which negatively affected his personality as a young adult. In terms of analyzing the character from a social perspective, it appears that Hunting gradually adopted the view that he has lived all his life without love and acceptance. He also formed the perception that he did not deserve the love of others, which became a problematic aspect in his social interactions. In this context, it is essential to understand Hunting’s distinct view about the fact he felt unloved. He was born in violence, which negatively reflected in the formation of his perspectives and attitudes toward life and social interactions with others. In all the homes he lived, Hunting suffered from different forms of abuse that affected him negatively. The fact that he has not received any sympathy is indicative of his emotional suffering and loneliness.
Another dimension related to social considerations represented in the movie is that of Hunting’s issue with authority figures and higher social class individuals. However, the main problem in the personality of Hunting is that he actually believed that he deserved the forms of abuse he encountered in his life. This definitely put him in an unfavourable position while maintaining social contacts with others. In this relation, it is important to consider the social implications of learning by the specific belief systems hold by different individuals. Such systems are fundamental in the process of developing one’s personality.
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Research Paper

Introduction
Diffraction involves a characteristic manifested in waves when they encounter an obstacle or a small opening. The obstacle or opening forces the wave to change direction and spread out. The ability to travel around corners and around objects demonstration can be done practically by using water waves with long wavelengths. Another basic phenomenon that describes how waves are diffracted is the wavelength of the wave. Wavelength is the distance between identical points in the adjacent cycles of the waveform propagated along a wire, water etc.

Figure 1: Wavelength
The length of a wavelength greatly affects the diffraction of the wave when it meets an obstacle. For instance, long waves cover a long distance due to the diffraction ability to bounce off objects or obstacles and carry further. Contrary, short wavelength waves don’t cover much distance. In experiments, a slit on a cardboard with a smaller wavelength than the wave produces uniform waves that don’t interfere with each other.
An experiment with a slit larger than the wave causes formation of a non-uniform wave thus causing interferences. The wavelength property and the diffraction are inversely proportionate in a manner that, when the wavelength of a wave increases its diffraction increases and if the wavelength decreases so does the diffraction angle.

Figure 2: Simple wave around an object diffraction
Diffraction on different types of waves;
Sound wave
This is experienced on a daily basis. If someone calls your name if you are in your room, you are able to hear the sound because of diffraction. Diffraction of sound waves can be observed in many aspects. Sound being a wave follows the property of diffraction just like any normal wave does. Sound can be diffracted around corners and small openings. This can be observed when you hear the sound around a corner of a house and sound proof rooms. To avoid any sound from the outside, soundproof rooms are completely sealed to avoid any sound from the outside.
Water Waves
Perhaps the most common phenomena that can be observed on a lake front, is when a ship passes by and how the water is diffracted from the ship. Allying the same basic wavelength principle, water waves can form patterns along an obstacle. Spreading out either too is changed out automatically depending on the wavelength. Short wavelength waves don’t cover a great distance. This is basically to the fact that they don’t carry a lot of energy as the longer wavelength waves. Thus, long wavelength waves are easily seen diffracted from ships as opposed to the short wavelength waves.
Light Waves around corners can be observed though not directly. Applying the same basic principles of waves, light can be easily diffracted around obstacles just like water and sound.
Conclusion
Diffraction is the bending of waves around an object or opening. This phenomenon can be observed on water waves, sound waves and light waves. Diffraction wholly depends on the wavelength of the wave. Longer wavelengths are easy to observe that short wavelength. This is due to the fact that long wave lengths can bend around the obstacles and be noticed, like the hooting of an owl.

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Historiography & Historical Methodologies: Turner Thesis/Methodologies

Globalization
According to the Turner thesis statement, the Americans encountered globalization confrontation of new challenges, climates as well as large tracts of land once they came into the New World. These conditions were very different from what the Americans were used to back in Europe. Initially, they acted and thought like Europeans but the conditions they were encountering across the New World engraved them into adapting new ways of undertaking things while reacting to various limitations for the geography they faced. This was a confrontation on the globalization’s civilization edge and the savage wilderness. According to Turner, this forged the ideal American character (Davidson & Lytle, 2009).
Through the entire globalization process, the individuals based on the frontiers were constantly reinventing themselves. This resulted in the formation of unique classes of people in a process of taming the wilderness to produce rugged individualism. While the successive generations traced movements further west, they shed the class distinctions, institutions, churches as well as the established governments for their past due to the globalization processes they became free and democratic.
While considering the four frontiers that Fredrick Jackson Turner proposes, the illustrations are based on the inconclusive nature of the idea’s validity for the democratization forged on globalization frontiers across the west. The fur traders as well as their nomadic existence do not allow sufficient stability in the production of various kinds of democratic institutions that are possibly inclusive of the more sedentary lifestyles (Taylor, 2012). The apparent application of the concept can be seen in placer mining frontiers for which there is less concentration in comparison to the institutions in the East. This globalization concept, therefore, forces them to live together with people of diverse ethnicities and backgrounds.They were also compelled by various circumstances into using democratic means for purposes of achieving social communities.
Women of Asia in a Globalized World
Due to the Globalized World, the Asian women in the ranching community faced forced considerations for the surroundings’ harshness to getting along with the neighbors as well as working out means of sharing land and water (Taylor, 2012). Likewise, the female farmers were compelled into working together for the achievement of common goals. Of the gender frontiers, evidence shows that the democratic institutions were developed with an aim of achieving common goals. In these cases, the defined influx of capital caused destruction to the freedoms of decision making and increased the local levels onto corporations. This way, the urban frontiers increased through the concept of frontiers which changed with the people inhabiting them.
In addition, Turner also observed that those asian Gender cosiderations were essential meeting points for savagery as well as civilization. This statement adds that Turner addressed the plight of the “savaged” West as well as that of the “civilized” East which were always at a clash hence pushing the others from the way. As the thesis mainly focused on the frontier’s positive aspects, it also engraves the issues of communications between the Westandthe East (Davidson & Lytle, 2009).
The asian region’s isolation in relaaation to women and globitization increased the peculiar American elements that needed transportation facilities in connecting it with the East to call out the important internal improvement schemes that are noted further on (Taylor, 2012). On the other hand, the “West” began to evolve as an art of the self-conscious section. At this point, the main argument against the thesis by Turner is in fact the assumption that American Frontiers were the American history’s turning point. The contentious issue of the roles of the Asian women towards the Asian continent is that it was not its turning point. The understanding from this thesis maintains that the women of Asia are not as “free” and with regards to the natives living there.
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Provide an account of the reasons which led Saddam Hussain to engage in the war of the cities

Reasons Which Led Saddam Hussein to Engage In the War of the Cities
There are various reasons that made Saddam Hussein to engage in the War of the Cities. One of the reasons that made Saddam to attack Iran is that by attacking Iranian citizens, it would have made people in Iran to protest against the Islamic revolution government that had just come to power ( American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise, 2013). The new government in Iran was led by Ayatollah Khomeini, who was a strong critic of the secular government by the Baath party in Iraq. Saddam saw the Islamic revolution government in Iraq as a threat and was looking for means to overthrow it. One of the ways was turning Iranian citizens against their government by attacking them ( American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise, 2013).
In the war fighter gets and tanks owned by Iraq tried to cause significant damage to property and vital resources. Saddam hoped that causing damage to vital resources would make Iranian citizens suffer and revolt against their government. However, due to the long distance between strategic Iranian cities and Iraq, the airstrikes by Saddam did not achieve their objective of causing damage to critical infrastructure in Iran ( American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise, 2013).
Another reason that made Saddam to attack Iran was because of the strategic importance of Iranian cities especially the city of Khuzestan which is located at the Iraq-Iran border. Saddam knew that controlling the city of Khuzestan would give him an advantage in preventing Iran from attacking Iraq in future, given that the Islamic revolution government was openly hostile to Iraq. Moreover, the Khuzestan province is rich in oil resources and this is another reason that motivated Saddam to arrack Iran ( American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise, 2013).
In his quest to destroy Iran, Saddam also attacked the Kurds that lived a few miles from the border of Iraq with Iran. Saddam considered the Kurds to be sympathizers of Iran and wanted to break away and join their counterparts in Iran. Fighter jets dropped chemical bombs in the town of Halabja, which about 60, 000 Kurds inhabitants. These bombs killed 5,000 Kurds including children ( American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise, 2013).
Another reason that made Saddam to attack Iran is the 1979 rise of Shi’a government in Iran which worsened the relationship with Iraq that was under Sunni leadership. Ayatollah Khomeini, the religious leader who became the head of Iranian government after the revolution, called upon the Shi’a in Iraq to rise against the government. Ayatollah called the Shi’a in Iran to rise against the government because he viewed the secular government in Iraq under the Ba’athist party as an abomination to Allah (Willett 14).
Iraq responded by calling upon Sunni Arabs in Iran to start a separatist uprising against the new government in Iran. This made Iraq and Iran to distrust and despise one another. Moreover, Saddam wanted to establish Iraq as the major force in the Arab world, and he believed that if he succeeded in invading Iran his plan would succeed (Donovan 16). In 1980, there was an assassination attempt against Iraqi foreign minister in the southern part of Iraq. Saddam claimed that Iran was responsible for the attack, and used this event as an excuse to wage war against Iran. Another reason Saddam gave for waging war against Iran was to stop the movement started by Khomeini to export Islamic revolution to Iraq and other countries in the Persian Gulf region (Donovan 17).
Territorial dispute over the waterways of Shatt al-Arab was another reason given by Saddam for invading Iran. However, the real reason for Saddam invading Iran was based on the regional rivalry that had existed for years. The Islamic revolution that took place in Iran and led to the ascending of Ayatollah to power directly threatened Saddam (Donovan 18). Ayatollah viewed Saddam as a brutal Sunni dictator that was oppressing the citizens of Iraq especially the Shi’a majority. Ayatollah did not hide his desire of seeing Saddam toppled from power. Hence, the real reason Saddam attack Iran was pre-emptive one i.e. to topple Khomeini regime before it could overthrow him. Saddam believed that Iran was experiencing turmoil because of the revolution, and his forces could easily win. However, Saddam’s assessment turned out to be wrong (Nigel John Ashton 24).
Saddam also wanted to take Khuzestan away from Iran because this would have interfered with the prestige and image of Iran, and eventually lead to the fall of the Islamic government. The invasion of Iraq by Iran started in 22 September, 1980 (Nigel John Ashton 24). The attack was a surprise to Iran, and it gave Iraq an advantage because Iraq was able to take control of Iranian border towns and territories. The Iranian army was ill prepared because of the 1979 revolution. Both Iraq and Iran engaged in air raids striking the enemy territory and causing destruction to property; but the air raids did not provide strategic gains to either side (Nigel John Ashton 24).
In 1982, Iraq and Iran engaged in a prolonged battle in Khorramshahr, and this battle left 7,000 people dead from either side. Because the battle fought in Khorramshahr city was bloody, Iranians came to refer to the city as the city of blood. The battle at Khorramshahr started with air raids from Iraq that targeted key points (Nigel John Ashton 36). However, Iran slowed the Iraqi attacks by using rocket-propelled grenade, recoilless rifles, Molotov cocktails and revolutionary guard troops. Iraq launched a second attack to capture the city through heavy house-to-house fighting. On the other hand Iran launched a slow withdrawal from Khorramshahr city, and the city was eventually captured by Iraq (Nigel John Ashton 37).
The people of Iran united around their country in order to resist the Iraq invasion, and succeeded in freeing the city of Khorramshahr from Iraqi forces. Saddam had counted on Sunni Muslims living in Iran to turn against the Ayatollah regime. On the contrary, hundred of thousands of Sunni Muslims living in Iraq volunteered to defend their country against Saddam forces (Hardy para. 4). This made Iranian forces to out number Iraqi forces, and Iran was also able to gain Air force advantage over Iran. Saddam noticed that his troops lack morale after they were defeated severally from March 1982. This made Saddam to call for a full retreat of his troops because he knew that he troops could not defend the territory he had annexed from Iran because they were few in number. Moreover, Saddam did not want to risk further loss his troops (Hardy para. 6).
After Iraq withdrew its troops from Iran, Ayatollah announced that Iran was going to invade Iraq. Saddam, with support of other Arab countries were afraid of a Shi’s revolution being brought to their countries, and offered good terms to Iran in order to stop the fighting (Research Unit for Political Economy para. 8). The offer made to Iran included to 70 billion dollars as compensation to war damages. However, Iran refused this offer and maintained that the only amicable solution to the problem was removing Saddam from power, and replacing his regime with a Shi’a Islamic Republic one (American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise para. 9).
The economic and political effects of the “war of the cities” were great. It estimated that approximately 500,000 people lost their lives during the war. Neither Iraq nor Iran had achieved the objectives that made them to go to war (American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise para. 10). Saddam did not succeed in overthrowing the Khomeini regime as he had wished, and he did not also succeed in re-drawing the border between Iraq and Kuwait in his favor. Iraqi claimed victory in the war, but this was not true because they only managed to escape defeat, despite the outside help they were receiving. The economic problems that Iraq experienced after the war with Iran is what made Saddam to invade Kuwait in 1990 (GlobalSecurity para. 5).
The war also caused Iran in terms of material and human lives, and put off the momentum of Islamic revolution. The war also made Iranians to be skeptical about the capabilities of their clerical leadership (American Iranian Council para. 7).
Conclusion
Saddam gave various reasons fro invading Iraq and these included claiming the waterway on River Tigris and Euphrates and taking back the Khuzestan region that he claimed originally belonged to Iraq. However, the real reason that made Saddam to invade Iraq was the fear of being toppled by the Islamic Republic Regime led by Ayatollah Khomeini that had come to power through the Islamic revolution.

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Reasons Which Led Saddam Hussein to Engage In the War of the Cities

There are various reasons that made Saddam Hussein to engage in the War of the Cities. One of the reasons that made Saddam to attack Iran is that by attacking Iranian citizens, it would have made people in Iran to protest against the Islamic revolution government that had just come to power ( American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise, 2013). The new government in Iran was led by Ayatollah Khomeini, who was a strong critic of the secular government by the Baath party in Iraq. Saddam saw the Islamic revolution government in Iraq as a threat and was looking for means to overthrow it. One of the ways was turning Iranian citizens against their government by attacking them ( American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise, 2013).
In the war fighter gets and tanks owned by Iraq tried to cause significant damage to property and vital resources. Saddam hoped that causing damage to vital resources would make Iranian citizens suffer and revolt against their government. However, due to the long distance between strategic Iranian cities and Iraq, the airstrikes by Saddam did not achieve their objective of causing damage to critical infrastructure in Iran ( American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise, 2013).
Another reason that made Saddam to attack Iran was because of the strategic importance of Iranian cities especially the city of Khuzestan which is located at the Iraq-Iran border. Saddam knew that controlling the city of Khuzestan would give him an advantage in preventing Iran from attacking Iraq in future, given that the Islamic revolution government was openly hostile to Iraq. Moreover, the Khuzestan province is rich in oil resources and this is another reason that motivated Saddam to arrack Iran ( American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise, 2013).
In his quest to destroy Iran, Saddam also attacked the Kurds that lived a few miles from the border of Iraq with Iran. Saddam considered the Kurds to be sympathizers of Iran and wanted to break away and join their counterparts in Iran. Fighter jets dropped chemical bombs in the town of Halabja, which about 60, 000 Kurds inhabitants. These bombs killed 5,000 Kurds including children ( American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise, 2013).
Another reason that made Saddam to attack Iran is the 1979 rise of Shi’a government in Iran which worsened the relationship with Iraq that was under Sunni leadership. Ayatollah Khomeini, the religious leader who became the head of Iranian government after the revolution, called upon the Shi’a in Iraq to rise against the government. Ayatollah called the Shi’a in Iran to rise against the government because he viewed the secular government in Iraq under the Ba’athist party as an abomination to Allah (Willett 14).
Iraq responded by calling upon Sunni Arabs in Iran to start a separatist uprising against the new government in Iran. This made Iraq and Iran to distrust and despise one another. Moreover, Saddam wanted to establish Iraq as the major force in the Arab world, and he believed that if he succeeded in invading Iran his plan would succeed (Donovan 16). In 1980, there was an assassination attempt against Iraqi foreign minister in the southern part of Iraq. Saddam claimed that Iran was responsible for the attack, and used this event as an excuse to wage war against Iran. Another reason Saddam gave for waging war against Iran was to stop the movement started by Khomeini to export Islamic revolution to Iraq and other countries in the Persian Gulf region (Donovan 17).
Territorial dispute over the waterways of Shatt al-Arab was another reason given by Saddam for invading Iran. However, the real reason for Saddam invading Iran was based on the regional rivalry that had existed for years. The Islamic revolution that took place in Iran and led to the ascending of Ayatollah to power directly threatened Saddam (Donovan 18). Ayatollah viewed Saddam as a brutal Sunni dictator that was oppressing the citizens of Iraq especially the Shi’a majority. Ayatollah did not hide his desire of seeing Saddam toppled from power. Hence, the real reason Saddam attack Iran was pre-emptive one i.e. to topple Khomeini regime before it could overthrow him. Saddam believed that Iran was experiencing turmoil because of the revolution, and his forces could easily win. However, Saddam’s assessment turned out to be wrong (Nigel John Ashton 24).
Saddam also wanted to take Khuzestan away from Iran because this would have interfered with the prestige and image of Iran, and eventually lead to the fall of the Islamic government. The invasion of Iraq by Iran started in 22 September, 1980 (Nigel John Ashton 24). The attack was a surprise to Iran, and it gave Iraq an advantage because Iraq was able to take control of Iranian border towns and territories. The Iranian army was ill prepared because of the 1979 revolution. Both Iraq and Iran engaged in air raids striking the enemy territory and causing destruction to property; but the air raids did not provide strategic gains to either side (Nigel John Ashton 24).
In 1982, Iraq and Iran engaged in a prolonged battle in Khorramshahr, and this battle left 7,000 people dead from either side. Because the battle fought in Khorramshahr city was bloody, Iranians came to refer to the city as the city of blood. The battle at Khorramshahr started with air raids from Iraq that targeted key points (Nigel John Ashton 36). However, Iran slowed the Iraqi attacks by using rocket-propelled grenade, recoilless rifles, Molotov cocktails and revolutionary guard troops. Iraq launched a second attack to capture the city through heavy house-to-house fighting. On the other hand Iran launched a slow withdrawal from Khorramshahr city, and the city was eventually captured by Iraq (Nigel John Ashton 37).
The people of Iran united around their country in order to resist the Iraq invasion, and succeeded in freeing the city of Khorramshahr from Iraqi forces. Saddam had counted on Sunni Muslims living in Iran to turn against the Ayatollah regime. On the contrary, hundred of thousands of Sunni Muslims living in Iraq volunteered to defend their country against Saddam forces (Hardy para. 4). This made Iranian forces to out number Iraqi forces, and Iran was also able to gain Air force advantage over Iran. Saddam noticed that his troops lack morale after they were defeated severally from March 1982. This made Saddam to call for a full retreat of his troops because he knew that he troops could not defend the territory he had annexed from Iran because they were few in number. Moreover, Saddam did not want to risk further loss his troops (Hardy para. 6).
After Iraq withdrew its troops from Iran, Ayatollah announced that Iran was going to invade Iraq. Saddam, with support of other Arab countries were afraid of a Shi’s revolution being brought to their countries, and offered good terms to Iran in order to stop the fighting (Research Unit for Political Economy para. 8). The offer made to Iran included to 70 billion dollars as compensation to war damages. However, Iran refused this offer and maintained that the only amicable solution to the problem was removing Saddam from power, and replacing his regime with a Shi’a Islamic Republic one (American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise para. 9).
The economic and political effects of the “war of the cities” were great. It estimated that approximately 500,000 people lost their lives during the war. Neither Iraq nor Iran had achieved the objectives that made them to go to war (American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise para. 10). Saddam did not succeed in overthrowing the Khomeini regime as he had wished, and he did not also succeed in re-drawing the border between Iraq and Kuwait in his favor. Iraqi claimed victory in the war, but this was not true because they only managed to escape defeat, despite the outside help they were receiving. The economic problems that Iraq experienced after the war with Iran is what made Saddam to invade Kuwait in 1990 (GlobalSecurity para. 5).
The war also caused Iran in terms of material and human lives, and put off the momentum of Islamic revolution. The war also made Iranians to be skeptical about the capabilities of their clerical leadership (American Iranian Council para. 7).
Conclusion
Saddam gave various reasons fro invading Iraq and these included claiming the waterway on River Tigris and Euphrates and taking back the Khuzestan region that he claimed originally belonged to Iraq. However, the real reason that made Saddam to invade Iraq was the fear of being toppled by the Islamic Republic Regime led by Ayatollah Khomeini that had come to power through the Islamic revolution.

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“Life After Death?”

The question about life after death remains unanswered premise in the modern society. To my opinion, I think that the dead exist in a world without an end. They live in their own but a separate universe from the living. Yes, I refer to immortality (Kastenbaum 421).
However, immortality can only be proven by God and the moment of end time. In such a case, end time could refer to end of existence which ends hence death of immortality. Nonetheless, proving immortality is quite difficult. According to Kastenbaum, a scholar, he said that dead people always live in form of other people life. They live inform of spirits, angel and act as guide. They can also be recalled through memories shared together (Kastenbaum 422).
Death is unavoidable by all means. People have connected with their death system, it happens on each individual at different time. Other components of death system include; place, times, objects and symbols. They have developed anxiety and fear. Kastenbaum believes that even if something escapes death, it cannot live forever (Kastenbaum 381).
Kastenbaum also maintains that; people die and their life afterwards is usually influenced by their own attitude, beliefs and knowledge. In addition, he says that people believe that there is life after death by cultural beliefs and behaviors to find some close attachment with them (Kastenbaum 403).
Contrary, they also add that some societies try to block a relationship with the dead and do not hold a belief in life after death. This is clear in some instance when an emphasis is laid on curing diseases and uses all efforts to prevent death (Kastenbaum 403).
In my view, I consider communication with dead as real act. Some believe that through conduction of funerals and mourning act as a bond between the living and the dead. It is also a relationship to continually honor the dead (Kastenbaum 385).
Regarding the work of my classmates, I totally agree with Justin on the basis that people live in another world. In addition, I support him on the fact that he argues his basis that we remember the dead through the memories shared with them.
On the argument of another classmate Claudia, I also concur with her opinion. This is because; she believes that the living and the dead reunite in another world. But on the other hand I disagree with her when she believes the life after death is mystery. I believe it is more than reuniting and just mystery. It is could be a stronger bond.

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The Positive Effects of Sleep on Mental Health in Adolescent

Introduction
Description of Sleep
Sleep is a natural condition that creates a condition of absence of consciousness. All voluntary muscles and sensory activities get inactivated during sleep. Sleep is an anabolic process that results to growth, rejuvenation of the immune system and improved mental health. The positive effects of sleep are evident through the study of disorders of sleep. Individuals with disorders like insomnia have psychological stress and severe health problems (Dahl & Lewin, 2002). Sleep is essential to a human being, and lack of it leads to impairment in temperature control, loss of dietary metabolism, malfunctioning of the immune system and ultimately death. Sleep gets control from the circadian rhythms, which set sleep stages and are highly conserved regions. Sleep is good and healthy to a human being. Sleeping at least six hours per day is an effective method to improve immune system and reduce depression.
Sleep has four stages which are under two types. The first type is rapid eye movement (REM) and the second type is non-rapid eye movement (NREM). The four stages of sleep involve stage 1 to stage 3 having non-rapid eye movement, and stage 4 involve rapid eye movement. Some scientists claim there is an increase in rapid eye movement stage of sleep after learning and neuronal replay during sleep. Other studies show that rapid eye movement deprivation after study is because of epiphenomena of stress and occur due to homeostatic changes (Hasting, Reddy & Maywood, 2003).
The first stage of the sleep cycle involves alpha and theta waves and last a few minutes then shift to the next stage. During stage two, it involves k-complexes, sleep spindles and theta waves with high amplitude and low frequency. Stage three in also called deep sleep and the brain records delta waves and theta waves. Delta waves have low frequency while theta waves have high frequency. During stage four, the brain records 50% delta waves and 50% theta waves. This is the deepest of the sleep stages. Stage five records beta waves with high frequency and involve rapid eye movement (Mignot, Taherir & Nishino, 2002).
Sleep improves mental development and brain growth
Rapid eye movement has relation with the cholinergic receptors increase and decrease of serotonergic modulators. Increase in cholinergic receptors enhances growth of human being during sleep. The studies on rats show high sensorimotor neurons that during waking have increased levels of growth response during subsequent sleep. Growth is essential in human being because it helps to attain maturity stage and reproduction period. Abundant levels of noradrenergic neurons results transmission of non-cholinergic neurons that lead to reduced cycles of rapid eye movement; this enhances increased sleep. Changes in the population of neuronal junctions in a human being result to initiation of rapid eye movement sleep (Mignot, Taherir & Nishino, 2002).
Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep has the following characteristic signs that help to determine the mental health of an individual. The electroencephalography activation results to an increase in reticular, thalomocrtical and cortical neuronal firing rates. The change in the hippocampal electroencephalography from irregular rhythms generates theta waves that influence changes of the nucleus in the fore brain. Voluntary muscle inactivation takes place due to postsynaptic inhibition of spinal anterior neurons. Serotonin has also a major role to in the varying phase of REM-NREM cycles of sleep. Serotonin influences both sleep-wake cycle and REM-NREM cycle. Imbalance of dopamine and serotonin hormones results to hypodopaminergic state such as Parkinson’s disease. Although there are dopaminergic drugs to manage Parkinson’s diseases the side effects are complex. This results to hormonal imbalance of hormones responsible for wake-sleep cycle (Duffy et al. 2009).
Colten and Altevogt (2006) add that other hormones that influence REM-NREM cycle are GABA and glutamate. Inhibition of GABA results to inhibition of REM sleep. Glutamate interacts with cholinergic and cholinoceptive neurons to generate an increased level of mesopontine that have the activity of onset of REM sleep. Sleep cycle modulation is essential for mental health and normal body functionality. Neuropeptides such as vasoactive internal polypeptide get involved in regulating REM-NREM cycles. In addition, the neuropeptides act as second messengers in gene transcription of the molecular clock genes. The regulation of these hormones and neurotransmitters helps in attaining homeostatic state in human. Sleep needs control in order to allow a person to wake and fall asleep. During wake hours, the adenosine levels in the blood continue to rise resulting to the need of falling asleep. During sleep time, adenosine levels decreases and the need for sleep reduces (Duffy et al. 2009). Good and sufficient sleep thus improves mental health and helps the adolescents to grow and develop in their intellectual capacity.
Sleep enhances learning among adolescents
The adolescents and Teenagers are most likely to be in school. Any mismatch that may occur between sleep need and students’ school programs would greatly affect the academic performance of the students. However, the students who are not deprived of sleep will most likely have better concentration in class and make better grades. Sleep plays very crucial role in enhancing memory capacity. Though no clear research has been carried out to determine whether sleep deprivation or its sufficiency affects academic performance, some loose relationship has been empirically established. According to research by National Sleep Foundation (2000), “high school students who describe themselves as having academic problems and who are earning C’s or below in school report getting less sleep, having later bedtimes and having more irregular sleep schedules than students reporting higher grades”. The students who had poor grades could be suffering from sleep disorders. Studies on the mechanism of sleep resulted to discovery of an excitatory wake-promoting neuromodulatory system. The hypothalamus is responsible for triggering the wake-promoting neuromodulatory system. Sleep triggers genes that are responsible in glucose metabolism and response to physiological stress (Tucker, Dinges & Van-Dongen, 2007). These genes get involved in breaking down the wake-catecholamine neurotransmitters during extended sleep deprivation. In addition, sleep gets markedly associated with expression of genes that affect individuals’ behaviour and cognitive functions especially learning ability. Evidently, enough sleep can be indirectly linked to mental stability and interest in learning. Since good education is characterized by the ability of the students to retain course contents and apply them in tests and real life, good sleep will ensure good academic life for the student.
Sleep enhances adolescent’s cognitive capabilities
Sleep also improves the cognitive capabilities and capacity of adolescents. On the other hand, adolescents who suffer from sleep deprivation are likely to experience cognitive impairment. Sleep shows a remarkable effect on the emotional state of the mind. Calming neuro transmitters which are formed during sleep, like serotonin work to relax the body’s muscles and nervous system during sleep. Upon waking up, the brain and the mind in general finds itself more relaxed and full of energy. These benefits adolescents with a clear and relaxed, yet energetic mind in the morning when they start their lessons (Ma, Song, & Cheng, 2008).Good sleep would therefore lead to a higher motivation for the adolescents needed in their studies. Such students cannot dose in class or have unintended sleep.
Sleep reduces disorders and control body weight
Good sleep helps to prevent some sleep disorders such as narcolepsy and obesity. During sleep, the body produces some protein molecules that enhance the ability of the body to fight infections and enable the adolescents to stay health. The adolescents constitute about half of the victims of narcolepsy. Further, many adolescents are today more exposed to obesity cases. Obesity has been established to increase the risks associated with sleep apnea among the young and older people. This is because through sleep, the levels of hormones are regulated, and hormones regulate human appetite for food. However if there is sleep disruptions, it is likely that the adolescents may have normal imbalance leading to increased appetite. Such increased appetite leads to carving for fast foods with high calories and fats. The long term impacts of the sleep apnea order can lead to severe consequences on health and general well-being of the adolescents. Among the adolescents, obesity is a major disorder that attracts a lot of peer bulling and social stigma. Stigma at the adolescence may affect the way the children behave towards others, socialize and show their self-esteem.
Evidently, the close relationship between obesity and sleep apnea among the adolescents can lead to mental and emotional problems that come with social isolation and poor interpersonal relations. It can cause stress and depression among the adolescents. The stress will therefore affect the adolescents in class and when doing their daily chores. In particular, the stress may affect the nervous system. Studies that involve mental health require an understanding of man’s nervous system, genetic instructions and subcortical neuronal-population networks that get involved in sleep. Man’s circadian pacemaker gets control form the genes. The pacemaker has twenty-four hour rhythmic clock that determines when there should be body rest. This molecular circadian clock gets control from cells close to the hypothalamus. The suprachiasmatic nucleus control molecular related cellular oscillators that exert physiological rhythms. Sleep is one of such psychological rhythms. By linking the researches to sleep, it can be argued that sleep helps to improve the level of psychological stability that in turn improves the conditions of the central nervous system and eventual free air and blood circulation in the brain. This reduces possibility of frequent headaches.
Sleep promotes emotional stability
Good sleep among the adolescents would improve their level of focus and emotional stability. On the other hand, negative moods such as being unnecessarily angry, sad and fearful are associated with poor sleep patterns. As a result, such adolescents would have difficulties and challenges in controlling their emotions as well as behaviours. A study by Wolfson and Carskadon (1998)among high school students established that the students had about two or more of less sleep hours during the weekends as compared to the week day nights showed more feelings of depression than their counterparts who stayed up less hours on the weekend nights . Further, Dahl (1999) argued that sleep loss can be linked to decreased capability of the adolescents to have control on the changes to their emotional responses. The adolescents wgo have bad sleep would therefore become easily agitated and moody. Evidently, sleep has positive effects on the mental capacity of the adolescents. The adolescents who have sufficient sleep are able to stay focused and committed to a given task, be less impulsive and have ease in ‘sitting still’ and completing given tasks. This differs from such behaviours as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) that sleep deprivation bring.
Sleep therefore helps the adolescents to reduce possibility of being stressed. If adolescents have well and enough sleep, it is possible that the levels of their blood pressure would be maintained. Further, high levels of stress that the adolescents may have during school period can be reduced by sleep. Through sleep, it is possible to have the stress levels repaired. This is because of the relaxation effect of sleep that the adolescents experience.
Sleep increases memory and attention
When a person engages with information to be learnt, new memories are formed in the brain for example, memorizing a long list of musical notes. However, these memories are very vulnerable. For them to stick, they must be improved and solidified. These process of consolidating the memory occurs when the connections between the brain cells and also between different regions of the brain. This is during the time the brain is relaxed, especially during sleep. These strengthening show that sleep helps to preserve memory (Raengo, 2008).
When teens sleep enough hours, they have clear minds which run smoothly and efficiently. When they lack sleep, then they become tired, lazy and can become depressed. The reason why adolescents cannot get to sleep as fast as adults is because they run on a different biological clock. The scientific name of a biological clock is the body’s cardiac rhythm. The body’s cardiac rhythm is temporarily reset during the adolescent period. This is why it is normal for adolescents sleep late and wake up much late (Erdle, Sansom, Cole, & Heapy, 1992).
Sleep shows a remarkable effect on the emotional state of the mind. Calming neuro transmitters which are formed during sleep, like serotonin work to relax the body’s muscles and nervous system during sleep. Upon waking up, the brain and the mind in general finds itself more relaxed and full of energy. This benefits adolescents with a clear and relaxed, yet energetic mind in the morning when they start their lessons (Ma, Song, & Cheng, 2008).
Conclusion
Sleep is very vital in the lives of adolescents. It helps in the brain development and psychological wellbeing. Sleep helps to reduce mood disorders, depression, anxiety and emotional imbalance. There are therefore many benefits of sleep to the life of adolescents. The adolescents thus need to have ample and consistent sleep so as to improve their mental health.

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LOGISTIC REGRESSION

In simple regression analysis, only two variables are usually considered. The central interest is usually that of finding the relationship between them. Cases however arise where more variables require to be added to this regression model. This information therefore extends the simple model. The basic model is a model a simple linear regression. It is the model that estimates the least squares using a single explanatory variable.
A categorical variable could also be referred to as a covariate. This covariate could be used to fit a particular set of data to fit a regression to each subset. A good example that can fit to this case of extension is of an orange tree. The data set available relates the circumference of a tree to the age of the trees. Five trees were used where they were observed at seven different times. The motivation of this extension was from the various perspectives which orange trees can be looked at. It could be from a simple linear model comparing the relationship between age and the circumference of the tree. Another perspective is to assume that the tree’s circumference is consistent, and then assume that growth starts at various different rates. The other method that can be allowed for further research could be carried out by first allowing increase in circumference to be the same for all the trees. The work should focus on finding out this by including an additional term to the linear model. The additional term could be added as an interaction term. It can start by assuming that the tree1 is the baseline. A term showing interaction could also be included in the formula of the model. This could be between the names of the two variables.
The shortcomings of the basic model include the few variables (Vach 2013) that can be examined and few perspectives that they can look at. This model cannot consider relationships involving more than two variables. This is despite the fact that, in most cases, more than just one independent variable affect or has some correlation with the dependent variable. Previous work brings in multivariate perspective of looking at the variables to account for many variables.
The first two methods are the previous work that
Below is a table containing the data
Circumference of the tree
Day First tree Second tree Third tree Forth tree Fifth tree
118 31 34 31 33 31
484 59 70 52 63 50
664 88 112 76 113 82
1004 116 157 109 168 126
1231 121 173 116 180 143
1372 143 204 140 210 175
1582 146 204 141 215 178
The simplest model that can be created in this case is would compare the relationship between age and the circumference of the tree. It would assume that the two variables are not different for the five trees.
Below is the descriptive statistics of the simplest model between age and tree;
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Investment Management

Introduction
Investments and investment opportunities come in many different shapes and forms, so much so that the term “infinite possible portfolios” has become commonplace, an indicator of the breadth to be found nowadays, especially so with regards to financial markets. Commodities, stocks, currencies, bonds – these are the basic components that have gone on to spawn a multitude of other hybrid securities and subsequent investment vehicles. Think of options and futures, index funds, mutual funds, hedge funds, along with the main vehicles covered in this paper – ETF’s and composite funds (funds of funds).
At the most basic level, investment involves an individual, retail investor looking through the array of options and making their choice of security/asset opportunity. Modern approaches however, begin with an analysis of that same retail investor in an effort to come up with a profile that subsequently helps in identifying the right asset mix to get them invested in. This is meant to ensure that the investor achieves maximum utility and satisfaction from an investment that matches personal tastes and preferences, rather than a ragtag assortment of investments. Subsequent sections of this paper illustrate these complexities and nuances of investment selection for retail investors.
Personal Analysis
Investor profiling relies on risk profiling based on individual appetites for risk. This appetite distinguishes the behavior of different investors in financial markets, as well as the level of satisfaction they achieve from different levels of return. Risk appetites are a very important force in fact that they could be considered to be a key driver of fundamental market behaviour (Bodie et al., 2008). The three risk profiles used commonly are;

a) The Risk-Averse Investor
Risk aversion describes behaviour that exhibits very low appetite for risk, regardless of return. The risk-averse investor will prioritise a consideration of risk and the level of risk involved ahead of return and return levels, meaning they are willing to trade-off more than proportionate returns for a lower level of risk. This is from a deep dislike/discomfort with risk, meaning this type of investor prefers low variance (very stable) investments over other types of investments. The risk-averse investor will therefore tend to be found in safe securities such as treasuries and the like, as opposed to high risk holdings like equity/commodity options.
b) The Risk-Neutral Investor
Risk neutrality is a middle ground between two different risk appetites, and defines the investor who gives equal weight to both risk and possible returns in their investment decision making. Risk-neutral investors analyse both sides of an investment gamble, and make their choices without bias to either.
c) The Risk-Seeking Investor
Risk seeking describes investor rationale that is fueled by the desire for higher, better returns, at the expense of risk considerations. A risk-seeking investor is willing to trade-off disproportionate levels of risk for higher returns, in contrast to the risk-averse investor. Therefore, the risk-seeker wins bigger when their investments do well, but lose even more when their investments go the other way.
In this case, my own profile as an investor is best described as between risk-neutral and risk-seeking, but leaning more towards the risk-seeking side. This means I am willing to see significantly riskier assets included in any possible portfolio, with the objective of higher returns.
Analysis and Discussion
From the first steps of profiling the investor, next comes the analysis of different investment options appropriate for the investor, and subsequent selection of the combination that best meets their profiled needs. A brief discussion of these options will outline the diversity available, but it is worth noting that this discussion centers on a retail investor taking up positions through funds and ETFs, which offer more efficiency in trades.
Equities are one of the main and most well-known cornerstones of financial markets. Equity in the form of stock, preference stocks, convertibles and other various securities make up this category, one with a consistent history of high-risk and high-returns. Equities tend to be one of the main investments for a risk-seeker portfolio. Commodities are another security similar in nature – high-risk with even higher returns upon successful investment. Aside from these two, there are derivative securities built around the two asset classes, as well as fixed-income investments that rank in the same high-risk, high-return end of the spectrum.
Investment returns are a function involving many different parameters, and the wise investor knows how these integrate with the performance of their holdings at any given time. For my own portfolio, which will be UK-centric and thereby get affected significantly by UK events, the following macro-economic factors will matter;
a) Inflation
Inflation’s primary effect on investment is the erosion of value over time, resulting in subsequent losses if an investment is not adjusted to stay ahead of the inflation curve. UK statistics are fairly moderate, showing stable inflation levels over the past few months and a decrease over the longer horizon. Inflation growth is a hazard– it tends to drive a slowdown in markets as it is usually a sign of a weakening economy.
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WESTERN MYTHS AND MYTHOLOGIES – ESSAY 2: THE MYTHIC HERO THEN AND AGAIN

Most of the stories do find their root in the Greek mythology. Most if the fictions are mainly based from these myths and ancient fables. For several centuries now, the Greek myth has been able to pleasure readers with its well-known hero who was able to overcome the hardness that do face him in order to become a hero in the society. These well-known tales do emphasize the predictable nature of the fate and predictions during the path of telling the hero’s narrative (Hamilton and Steele 34). The Greek myths are the most basic, and original and even most satisfying stories ever told. The movies, Clash of the titans”, “Immortals” and “Hercules” are all set in the Greek city of Argos where war is experienced between the gods and the mankind. All these movies have tried to portray the actual events that occurred from the ancient Roman and Greek history and also they have tried as much as possible to portray a more fanciful tale that has been drawn from mythology (Hamilton and Steele 50). All these films have one thing in common; they all have less concern in portraying the ancient world historically precisely than they are when it comes to make money. For this to take place, besides the sex, special effects, and crowd pleasing exoticism, they have an obligation of portraying characters, values and stories that do reflect their modern viewers more than those of the ancients whom they claim to represent. For instance, in the situation of the clash, the emphasis of the movie is directly toward the crowd pleasers which is held together by minimal character development and an unsubstantiated story which remind us that good is better than evil, the gods are not better than the men, and that moderate godliness is way better than either fixated devotion or a proud atheism.
All of these movies present a story of the hero Perseus, who bears a resemblance to the ancient Greek myth. In the movies, Perseus was the son of a mortal woman and Zeus and was able to cut the head of Medusa and ended up saving Andromeda from the sea monster. All this is the same as in the book ‘Mythology by Edith Hamilton’. Other than this, most of the films plot is a fabrication of the screenwriter’s limited imaginations. For instance, in the clash, a fisherman who wanted nothing but be just an ordinary person, Perseus, was able to be transformed to a demigod when he was caught up in a titanic battle that was between the gods and the humankind and even gods against the gods (Clash of the Titans). When masked into the Greek mythology, the immortals film appears to be much more of a tale which put its own spin on the matters of the war that is between the holy angels, Satan and god and the army of demons that are out of the bible. The movie does leave a very crucial point that God did create the angles and that Jesus Christ will return at his second coming together with his holy angels in order to defeat Satan together with all is armies. As the entertainment industry plugs the emptiness of spirituality for most of the people today, this can be a very powerful tool when it comes to influence the people into believing many false spiritual beliefs that do not even exist. The increase in the fascination with the angles, occult, Gnosticism and contraction spirits are a direct result of these big budget movies and books such as Mythology, which are from the past.
In these movies, the stories given are thin when it comes to the values and the characters that the modern audiences have to relate to when compared with the cost of altering the Greek myth. In the original Greek myth, Perseus has a task of completing the impossible tasks of cutting off the head of Medusa so as to be in a position to save his mother from the authority of the superfluous suitor (Clash of the Titans). By succeeding with the task, Perseus reveals that the mortal man in the ancient Greek is capable of more than what we might be expecting of ourselves, especially to the people who have been blessed with some special talents. At the same time, Perseus in these movies shows the audience all that it takes to create a man who in the future is in a position to protect the one he loves such as how he was able to protect his mother in the original story, save the world in the movies. In order to succeed in this, he must show hi power over the women by resisting the temptations that may be posed by them such as how he resisted looking at Medusa as he cut off her head. He is in a position to do all this as the gods did provide him with special tools such as adamantine sword and winged sandals, and the guidance. By this, we are able to see the power in the universe which can both hinder and help the mortal men, but in the end is up to the good of the fortune that will be helpful.
In contrast, the Immortals movie, Perseus’ mother is killed during the beginning of the movie, and this eliminated the whole aspect of ancient Greek boy becoming a man theme of the movie (Immortals). Equally, a prominent pace is given to the father of Perseus, who is his adoptive father. The issue of good versus evil is injected in all the stories of the movies which is through god Hades who when one looks at the original story of the Greek is contrary. In conclusion, Perseus myth is made up of different satanic figures depending on the films making it be the main cause of human suffering. Credit should be given to these movies since they all add a little shade to the tired theme by way of devising the character of religious extremist who is responsible for preaching dutiful devotion to the human kind and the gods criticizing the people to conciliate them by way of sacrificing the young Andromeda maiden to the gods.
Medusa in the films is one of the distinguished supernatural beings. In her state of affairs, it is not because of the attractiveness but the cruelty that does upshot to problems for the spectators. When she is matched up to Perseus, she is very dreadful through her one main look that does turn a man into sculptures. Medusa in the Greek myth is dissimilarity to the other stunning characters in the Greek myth such as Perseus and Narcissus who do come out all through the account of the Greek myth (Kalogeraki 90). In particular Greek story, when contrasted to the other different myths about conquerors, the Greek myth can be termed as an adventure fiction which is known to have drama, memorable high stakes, and imaginative characters. The big question is that who in the audience of these movies does notice the issue of themes in them. For most of the people watching the movies, it is just enough for the film to have a theme that does not run contrary to the expected values. The three films main attraction is the escapist exoticism, the special effects and action scenes.
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Pros to Contraceptive

Contraceptives are drugs, devices, or ways used to prevent pregnancy. It occurs through preventing fertilization of the ovum by the sperm or through creation of unfavorable environment for implantation of a fertilized egg to take place in the uterus (Gebbie and Katharine 9). There are several cases that have looked into the issue of contraceptives. I agree to the use of contraceptives and the court rulings that supported the use of contraception. Several of these rulings have looked into the advantages of contraceptives by issuing the ethical and legal considerations that led to their determination. This paper will highlight some of these considerations as they occurred in a number of cases in the United States.
The first case to consider is Griswold v. Connecticut 381 whose ruling was determined in June 7, 1965. The ruling made by the Supreme Court indicated that the Connecticut statute violated the right of marital privacy by forbidding the use of contraceptives. I believe the court took time to consider the ethical and legal issues that came into play to influence such a ruling.
In the United States, there are a number of laws, which can be either tort or constitutional that support an individual’s right to privacy. I believe any person is permitted to seek legal redress under tort law in the event of invasion of privacy. In addition, the tort law takes into consideration the potential of such invasions to bring character defamation, material gain, or even mere curiosity. The protection is offered to all persons under the American law. However, public figures are exempted from strict protection measures.
It is interesting that the constitution fails to mention anything with regard to privacy. It is the Harvard Law review of 1890 that brought into light the concept of the right to privacy. This opened the opportunity for Supreme Court to issue landmark decisions with regard to privacy. One of the rulings is the Griswold v. Connecticut that defied a state law that had prohibited the use of contraceptives (Harrison and Steve 53).
Looking at the ruling, I believe the medical professionals had a legal right and ethical justification to dispense the emergency contraceptives. The said drugs are only used in rare circumstances. The issuance also requires patient autonomy as is the case with the ethical guidelines followed by physicians and other health professionals.
I believe that the use of emergency contraception necessary even though it was triggered by the rise of women’s right to have abortion. However, there has been rising argument on the need to use contraception with the view that it facilitates ending the life of the unborn through abortion. According to the Griswold v Connecticut case, the right to abortion started with the right to privacy. The Connecticut statute prohibited the sale, utilization or counseling of contraceptives. Justice Douglas deemed the view unconstitutional and an encouragement to the breach of privacy for married couples. The reasoning by the legal team influenced the outcome of the case. The seven judges who ruled against the Connecticut statute reasoned that the fourteenth amendment was no taken into consideration as specified under the Liberty Clause. Only two judges, Justice Stewart and Justice Black, dissented to the ruling. The two judges argued that the constitution did not have a documented right to privacy. With the ruling, such provisions were availed.
It is such ruling that led to another ruling involving the case Roe v. Wade (1973). The ruling indicated that a woman had a constitutional right to procure an abortion. This particular case led the use of trimester viability in determining such cases as the intent of the state was to preserve prenatal life. In addition, the court considered the physicians in its decision by giving them free will to practice medicine. It seems the court realized that the key decision maker is the woman seeking to use contraception and not the healthcare professional.
Another case that seemed to challenge the use of contraceptives is that of Akron v. Akron Center for Reproductive Health (1983). The case deemed unconstitutional several provisions in the Ohio abortion law that regulated abortions and the role of physicians in treating patients who want to procure an abortion. The ruling affirmed the constitutionality of the use of contraceptives.
Webster v. Reproductive Health Services (1989) is another case that looked into the use of contraceptives. In its ruling, the Supreme Court case reviewed several of the statutes in Missouri that restricted access to abortion services. Webster case is significant as it narrowed down on the ruling by changing the trimester analysis that had been used in questioning the constitutionality of contraception. The evaluation of the popularity opinions of the judges in the case can be divided into three sections. Firstly, the Court was in agreement that the revised statutes that indicated that human life begins at conception and that the unborn have a right to protection were not constitutionally affecting the case.
Secondly, the court was in agreement that the revised Missouri statutes that prohibited abortion in public hospitals or any other state owned property was constitutional. However, the court also agreed that there is no provision in the constitution that prevented a woman from taking contraceptives. I believe that this is a show that the state encourages childbirth over abortion. In addition, the court noted that women in Missouri could still obtain contraceptives from private health providers.
Thirdly, the court upheld the constitutionality of the revised statutes that required health providers to perform tests in determining the viability of the unborn child. This led to the revision of the trimester framework to allow more use of the contraception. Justice Blackmun expressed his fears that the ruling would lead to overturning the initial ruling under Roe. However, the ruling did not permit more strict measures on abortion. This means that the physicians are required to issue emergency contraception.
There is another case in which the plaintiff was not provided emergency contraceptives after being raped. This occurred in the case Brownfield v. Daniel Freeman Marina Hospital. The hospital staff refused to offer the complainant with the requested emergency pill as it was a Catholic hospital. In the ruling, the court was in agreement that the hospital faulted the patient’s right of autonomy. In addition, the hospital was required to disclose information to the patient so as to enable making of informed decision. There was a possible malpractice by healthcare practitioners for failing to provide the much needed healthcare that could have been possible elsewhere under similar conditions.
The case of Troppi v. Scarf was another involving the use of contraception. The plaintiff claimed that the pharmacist acted out of negligence by failing to provide the right contraceptive leading to the plaintiff’s pregnancy. The court looked at the damages caused by the failure to provide the right contraceptives. The judges were concerned that the pharmacist ought to fill the prescriptions accurately. However, there was no mention of the unconstitutionality of the contraceptive, an indication that they are accepted by the state.
The case Morr-Fitz, Inc, v. Blagojevich questioned the legality of the emergency contraception. The plaintiffs expressed dissatisfaction with the regulation that required pharmacies to adhere to certain procedure in dispensing the emergency contraceptives. There were also other ethical considerations that were protected by constitution such as the Religious Freedom Act and the Illinois Conscience Act that ensured the right to exercise once conscience when faced with issues that conflict individual beliefs. However, the law remains ambiguous with regard to personal, religious or moral concerns that may influence the issuance of emergency contraception. It remains a rare circumstance where a party is prone to harm.
Ethical code of conduct requires medical practitioners to act on behalf of their patients. In the legal field, there remain no laws that outline ways of dispensing the emergency contraceptive. The only guidance is the numerous policies that exist at the state level. However, it is expected of the physicians to act in rare circumstances such as Brownfield v. Daniel Freeman Marina Hospital. The major disconnect that prevents prompt action by the healthcare provider when it comes to dispensing emergency contraception is the complexity of the pregnancy and the emergency contraception. It is not an issue to do with ethical dilemma.
In conclusion, the legal concerns that affect the use of emergency contraception can be looked into in three ways. Firstly, the courts determined at what point a fetus had a right to legal protection. Secondly, the courts determined whose rights were being violated. Lastly, the court took into consideration the rights protecting the pharmacists. For instance, the rulings of Roe v. Wade indicated the willingness of the state to protect life throughout the pregnancy period. That is why the court proposed the trimester assessment of pregnancy viability. In addition, the rulings indicated that patients have a right to privacy, abortion and the use of emergency contraception. However, it is the establishment of harm that complicates the legal principle as witnessed in Morr-Fitz, Inc, v. Blagojevich.

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Human Resource

Problem Identification:
International Paper Company is expanding its operations beyond its traditional areas of market and as such, it has to employ extra people across the world. The challenge is in attracting and retaining the best talent for its operations.
Management Objective:
• Attracting the best talent by offering competitive packages and flexible working hours
• Retention of talent by engaging employees to find effective ways of balancing career life with family and other daily life issues
• Creation of strategies to attract and retain women and minorities at the international paper company; 36% workforce is women as at 2012, compared to only 17% in 2006
Decision Factors:
Quantitative:
• The international paper company is the second largest supplier of paper products in the USA at 25% market share and has interests in India, Far East and North America. The company plans to expand its market share to 30% by 2014 in the USA alone.
• Expanding operation to new markets and the need for increased production which requires more workforce
Qualitative:
• Increased adoption of green technologies towards conservation of the forests and the environment during the sourcing of raw materials for the industry
• Increased competition from other industry players like from India and China where production costs are less
Key Performance Indicator Recommendations:
• To expand its operations beyond its primary areas of operation instead of closure of some of its production mills and hence avoiding lay off for its employees and instead creating more employment opportunities
• Increase market share in the United States of America from 25% to 30 % by the year 2014.

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Epideictic Speech Memorializing President Obama

While many would consider Barack Obama’s greatest achievement to be his presidency—that too for two consecutive terms—no accomplishment can actually exceed his ability to gain and maintain the trust of the people and make his place in their hearts. One might ask if he attained this trust and love with his good looks and charming manners, and it would be a valid question, for Americans have often chosen and admired presidents with looks and charm—JFK and Clinton being the best examples. However, Obama’s unwavering stand against the strong capitalist sentiments that had caused American people to suffer in severe economic recessions and wars shows that he is loved because he truly cares. It is indeed ironical that the Republican Tea Party Movement came into existence merely three months after his election as the President, the same Republicans who propelled the nation into two major wars and a severe recession.
In fact, in recalling the history of Republican and Democratic leadership in the nation, can anyone remember a time, since Lincoln fought to bring the South and the North together, a president who fought every force to ensure people do not suffer because of the machinations of the corporate world? How can there be any doubt that Obama’s health care reform bills, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Obamacare) and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act will enable millions of Americans access to basic medical facilities they had been denied before? Additionally, isn’t it paradoxical that in a country that takes pride in being a superpower, expensive medical insurance plans forced people to opt for health care insurance after they fell sick and the poor and aged had to subsist in suffering while medical insurance companies blatantly rejected their applications and/or restricted their insurance limits (Anderson, Rice, and Kominiski, 2007). However, President Bush spent two terms in office without being concerned about this fact and focusing on bombing Iran and Afghanistan for potential threats.
Unlike his predecessor, Obama’s stand on terrorism was tough without any ulterior motives; the capture and killing of Osama Bin Laden is an illustration of this fact. After all, shouldn’t national security be about protecting the people of the country instead out running behind so-called rouge states that have been pushed to the status by American capitalism and defense supports? Obama withdrew the American troops from Iraq and Afghanistan, supported Mubarak’s resignation, made a demand for ending Gaddafi’s autocratic regime, and increased sanctions on Iran—showing he was not taking any threats to the United States lightly—thus initiating a new era of foreign policy for the nation. In Obama’s presidency, students can now repay their loans in up to twenty years after their education, and the dream of an America that creates “the highest proportion of college graduates in the world” seems closer (The White House, 2013). While the list of Obama’s achievements can go on, some other achievements worth mentioning are his work in pulling the automobile industry from its fall and supporting it restructuring, thus saving the country from another recession; his advocacy of homosexual rights; halting the torture interrogation techniques legalized by Bush; and creating a better situation for war veterans. Clearly, if America wanted a president who genuinely cared for his compatriots, choosing Obama was the best choice in a long time.

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Religious Studies

A narrative refers to a powerful story that retells events in history, and that is purpose is to give meaning and direction to particular people in the present time. These stories begin with a conflict or problem and end with the problem or conflict being resolved.
Hence, the clarification of the theological and philosophical differences in racial attitudes in the biblical world and now are some of the main points from the readings. The narratives show major processes in both Old and new testaments that portray the prehistoric uncertainty on race. Felder reveals misuses and misinterpretations of the scripture such as the so-called curse of Ham in the Bible. He shows how people are using the Bible in undermining the Africans and their contributions and hence this resulted to black enslavement. Therefore, Felder in the narratives challenges Bible scholars and Christians to invest in deeper and sincere engagement of the Bible . Likewise, the readings try to show evidence of black Africans in the Bible and how a white God does not write the bible to white people. They highlight the fact that God is a Spirit and does not have color like as it is the case with human beings. Similarly, it is clear that God’s salvation is universal irrespective of the skin color since his will is that all people receive eternal salvation.
The readings help us to be careful not to do the common mistake, which people do by personalizing the narratives in the scripture by trying to make the narratives to apply to them. Likewise, they help us to be careful in interpreting the Old Testament as this has led to the emergence of many cults and occults, which are misleading God’s people.
Following Felder’s attempt to clarify the profound differences in racial attitudes and perceptions in the biblical world and the current, challenges one to advocate for a deeper and more honest engagement in handling the scriptures. For proper, interpretation of the bible, we need to understand and not only know some general rules that apply to all the words of the Bible, but also need to learn the special rules that apply to each of the genres in the bible. The narratives highlight issues and concerns that challenge us to further study the Historical context, the time, culture of the author and his readers, geographical, topographical, and political factors that are applicable to the author’s setting . These are important in helping us to understand the occasion and purpose of the Old Testament and other parts of the Bible. Moreover, they help the readers in desiring to dig into discovering the author’s train of thought and finding what the original author intended to pass instead of making conclusions that divide humanity on a racial basis . This is because misinterpretations are inevitable if we do not focus on the original intent of the biblical text or the plain meaning, which is the foundation of understanding the bible.
The readings are important in showing how a text in the Old Testament cannot mean what it never meant. Therefore, the readers understand that people can interpret the scriptures in different ways, which could lead to improper interpretations. The narratives have helped me to see the need of using different translations of the Bible when studying the Bible. This is essential in comparing parts where the manuscripts differ, and determine which of the variants represents errors and which one most likely represents the original text.
In addition, the narratives enhance the reader’s understanding on the Old Testament that the documents are indeed historical and true accounts and we should not just aim at trying to manipulate the scriptures to discover what no one else has seen before. They help in relating the Old Testament narratives to contemporary issues such as IVF Treatment since such issues were not present when the Bible was written. Thus, proper interpretation of the Old Testament allows Christianity to be understood from a wider range of perspectives and that it lets us demythologize it.
Moreover, they help one in understanding the Old Testament hence identify and discover contradictory statements in the bible. Such should be eradicated to avoid racial discrimination and other misconceptions. The reader can understand that sometimes the bible does not necessarily mean what it says so that the Old Testament reader can grasp a complete understanding of it . Therefore, it becomes important to understand that eradicating and failure to apply some portions of the Old Testament are not questioning the authority of God and the supremacy of the scriptures.
In conclusion, the narratives help us to put the Old Testament stories into context, and discover the deeper meaning that can make sense to present day. They also help us in putting the Bible into context and discovering the deeper meaning. I believe that looking deeper into the Old Testament; past what is written in black and white can deepen a person’s faith in God as they can develop a better knowledge and understanding of the Bible bettering their relationship with God. In addition, Christians should invest in the study of Hermeneutics since they reveal revelation of the past to us now, which can again help us to gain a better knowledge of God as we know more about his nature. Likewise, good interpretation of the Old Testament can result into overcoming the idea of the Bible being outdated, this way we can understand the concepts and reasons behind the bible and its stories, to better knowledge of why some things were practicable then and not now.
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Comparison between Biff and Bernard in the Death of a Salesman by Arthur Miller

In the play, death of a sales man by Arthur Miller, the author contrasts Bernard and Biff characters to highlight their characters. Bernard is casted as a hard working person with a good heart while Biff is portrayed as a spoilt child who wants an easy life. Bernard has a good heart and tries to help Biff with his studies. Biff is a popular football star in high school while Bernard is clever at school. Bernard is concerned that Biff does not do well in mathematics. Bernard also helped Biff in mathematics. Bernard admires Biff’s skill in football and tries to help him excel in school.
Bernard does not base his success after school on his popularity and handsomeness but works hard to make it in life. Biff, on the other hand, is badly brought up by his father and grow up to be a failure in life. Bernard tries to help Biff in his studies, but Biff is not willing to cooperate. Bernard ends up being happy and successful in life. He becomes a successful lawyer who argues a case in the Supreme Court. Bernard is popular and handsome but does not base his success on these attributes. He works hard in his education to succeed in life. Bernard becomes a lawyer in his adult life and argues a case before the Supreme Court. Bernard is humble and does not show off despite his success, he is concerned about the welfare of Biff. Bernard is cautious because he does not want to give Biff the answers to the state exam since he fears being arrested.
Final copy
Bernard and Biff are two lads growing together in University. Bernard is better in school than Biff who is good at football. Bernard has been brought well by his father that makes him try to help Biff excel in his studies. Biff is, unfortunately, not ready to listen to any advice and ends up becoming a failure in life while Bernard excels to become an attorney arguing a case in the Supreme Court. Bernard’s character contrasts Biff’s character. The author contrasts Bernard is and Biffs to highlight more the two characters in the play.
Bernard is dishonest since he gives Biff the answers to some of the exam. Even though he is willing to help Biff pass, giving him the answers shows dishonesty. Biff is not concerned about his studies. Bernard is concerned about Biff studies, but Biff is abusive and reckless. Biff’s father, Willy, instils in Biff false values that lead him to become a failure in his young life. Bernard attempts to correct Biff so that he can become successful in life, but Biff does not listen. Bernard tries to help Biff in his studies by reminding him that Mr Birnbaum would be angry with him if he failed in mathematics and he would not graduate. Bernard is in more touch with reality than the other characters. He tries to explain to Mr Willy and Biff that Biff will need to pass in order to graduate and not just print the name of their university on the sneakers. Bernard matures to be modest and responsible. His modest character is seen in referring to the supreme case course as just a case.

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Nicolas Poussin Wooden River Bank long Tiber: Pen and brown wash, 16.4 x 12.5 cm 1629-1655 Musee Fabre Montpellier

Historical context of the art work:
The painting was inception during the reign of the Baroque style, which saw neoclassicism take root in most of Europe. This occurred during the political and religious tension between the Catholics and the Protestants. The artist responsible for the masterpiece is Nicolas Poussin, who was originally born in Normandy, the present day area in France. He learned Latin in his early studies, which offered him a milestone that would later see him prevail in the Vatican. Nicolas Poussin was the first pupil of Quentin Varin, who doubled as a socialite and local painter. At the age of 18, Nicolas Poussin eloped to France, and ventured into the studio of Ferdinand Elle and Georges Lallemand, who were of Flemish decent. They tutored Poussin into mastery of classical art forms, which he would later develop and transition to neoclassicism. His artwork grew beyond euphoria to their current profound fame after meeting with Fransceo Barberini who lodged and financially assisted him while in Rome.
The art work:
The painting was commissioned as part of the Roman Catholic attempt to spread religion using Baroque style. As such the landscape mapping borrows most of the artistry from neoclassicism. The economic prevalence at the inception of the landscape painting was evident through class stratification and accumulation of wealth. Science and technology was still at birth and naïve. However, since the landscape painting occurred after the era of enlightenment most people sought explanation of natural behavior in science and technology, and relayed the information through art. The discoveries and inventions were limited to new forms of artistry with a unidirectional shift from classicism to neoclassicism, and unparalleled opposites between baroque and Renaissance style.
The art work favors usage of lines more than color, with logic and tranquility being the subject matter of the art piece. The color is black and white and the fine texture being suggestive of the academic art forms famous during the neoclassic era. Poussin was his own man seeking clarity and meaning between opposites of early preoccupations of baroque and Renaissance, which prompted him to harmony and focus on nature. This is the main purposes of the landscape image, which is to evoke harmony. At the foreground of the image there is a stream flowing with the background being characterized with shadowy lines portraying still trees.
Impact on the world:
Nicolas Poussin work would later become appreciated as the founding inspiration to an artist like Jean Auguste Ingres and Jacques Louis David. These artists later on steered neoclassicism as a new art form after the era of enlightenment.
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Hearing Impaired and Fire

Indeed, fire and fire related accidents are a frightening possibility for individuals with hearing impairments and a stark reality for many people across the globe. People with hearing impairments are confronted with distinct fire risks on a day-to-day basis. Research suggest that there are approximately 28 million Americans who have hearing impairments and cannot rely on the lifesaving warning sound of a smoke alarm to alert them during fire accidents because the typical fire alarms are not applicable for people who have hearing impairments. In most cases, people who have hearing impairments are at risk during fire accidents because decreased hearing may limit an individual’s ability to take prompt action and run for safety during fire emergencies. Further, based on the physical limitations, most of the actions that can be taken by an individual to protect themselves from fire related dangers often always require the help of neighbors, caretakers or other external forces.
Du Bois, Klassen & Roby (2005), examined the waking effectiveness in people with different types of vibrotactile, auditory, and visual alarms in three particular samples of subjects with varied levels of hearing impairments and they established that a low frequency signal or alarm is the most effective for individuals with hearing impairments.
The United States was reported to have recorded the highest number of fire accidents at home. The fire accidents have claimed many lives of people with hearing impairments. It is estimated that 2500 people die each year in the United States due to fire related accidents. In addition, an estimated 12600 are injured in home fires.
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Ethics: Head Transplant

It would be great if after someone had been run over by a train and his/her lower body crashed, he/she could count on checking into a hospital and immediately be placed on a list for recipients of lower bodies. A patient would also experience similar relief if after suffering from a paralyzing disease, like muscular dystrophy, he/she could opt to end the suffering by getting a new body. This is the hope that Dr. Canavero, an Italian neuroscientist, wants to give to such victims/patients. Obviously, this creates controversial moral and ethical concerns about such a surgery, a head transplant.
The first moral and ethical issue that the procedure would invoke is the question of personhood. I do not agree that you can view an individual’s life as exclusive of the general societal life. This is because due to cultural prejudices or religious beliefs, people view human life differently. There are religions that are completely opposed to seeking medical assistance in form of surgery; they strongly believe in the healing power of faith. Obviously to such individuals the soul of a man resides in the whole body and to lose part of one’s body would amount to wounding the soul as well.
The second ethical issue concerns the extent to which medicine will go. I think that if such a procedure is encouraged, there will come a time when it will be cheaper to fuse human heads onto the bodies of pig, horses and so on. Therefore, I disagree with the project because it will lead to trivialization of the physical nature of human beings. Supposing if later a machine could be invented that could keep the head alive for 70 years, would it be ethical to preserve the head for that long?
The third ethical and moral issue concerns what the doctor has hinted to in the article, the black market for organs. Already the world is facing a challenge in enforcing regulations concerning the transfer of organs such as kidneys and livers. I disagree with the notion that coming up with regulations will be enough to prevent a black market for lower bodies. The desire to live will simply bring out the cannibal nature of human beings.
It is worth noting that Dr. Canavero has already hinted that the procedure is doomed to fail. I say this because after analyzing the length of time, the complexity of the procedure, the cost, and the moral and the ethical issues, the project fails the feasibility test. With regard to the length of time required, the head has to be severed by a very sharp blade and the transfer has to be done within an hour as that is the maximum time the brain can survive without oxygen. Yet the doctor says the procedure would require 36 hours! In terms of complexity, enough experiments have not yet been conducted on animal test subjects (‘lab rats’) and additionally the surgery requires 100 surgeons to attend to one patient! I disagree because it is simply impossible to put 100 surgeons in one theater to attend to a single patient. The cost of the procedure per patient is a whopping $12.6 million; hardly affordable. A moral issue then emerges after the surgery, what happens to the head of the donor and the lower body of the recipient?
With regard to autonomy, the patient has no autonomy because by the time he/she is offered an option for a head transplant, his/her physical health would be at serious risk. The desire to live outweighs the desire to die. I believe most patients would opt for the risky procedure if it is the last resort.
The procedure raises more question than answers and consequently I completely disagree that extensive research be conducted on the subject. I believe given the limitations the doctor has already hinted to, this article is nothing but a publicity stunt. This surgery should never be performed.
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Youth Dropout Rates

Dropping out can be defined as leaving school prematurely without the proper credentials such a certificate or a high school diploma as defined by the National center for education.
Factors that lead to dropouts
Academic factors and school environment. Bullying in school is a key contributing factor to increased dropouts. Bullied students are likely to dropout. They end up saying that they did not like the school or did not get along with their teachers or other students as a reason for dropping out.
Parental background. Studies have shown children in families that have gone divorce, remarriage of one or both of the natural parents have a higher risk of dropping out. Poverty in the family may be a contributing factor to increased school dropouts. They may want to lighten their parents the burden of paying school fees.
Race and ethnicity. African -Americans and Hispanics have a higher dropout rates than the whites. This is due to the stereotypes present in the society. However, Hispanics are more likely to dropout than the African-Americans are. They may be exposed to drugs abuse or presence of high influential gangs in their locality.
Results for dropping out
Parental background. Lack of stability in the family may lead to children feeling insecure. They may feel responsible in case of a divorce. In case of poverty in the family, the student may drop out and seek employment. In a family that have gone through a divorce, the children often choose between their parents. This causes increased stress and anxiety to the children increasing the likely hood of dropping out.
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The world automobile industry has experienced low profitability during the past two decades. What features of the industry have caused intensive competition and low profitability?

Value of a product
To run an industry, or more specifically, a company operating within an industry, it is a must to gain profits over the products. Profits keep the company’s expenses going while leaving enough on the table to meet the future demands. Until and unless the company receives profits on its products, it cannot invest in further endeavors and would probably start falling backwards. The path towards growth and expansion would become rocky and impossible to cross by the company. Hence, the end result would be the company to wind-up its activities or get sold to someone who can make better use of the company.
Profits start coming in with products that prove valuable to the customers. Value of a product is determined by the customer’s approach towards a product. A product that the customer is willing to spend his money on thinking that it will solve his problem, or would be helpful in solving the problem. When a customer believes in a product to be helpful for him, he willingly agrees to pay more than the costs incurred in the manufacturing, or production of the product. But value does not directly counts as a profit for the company that is manufacturing the product. The superfluous of value over the cost incurred in the manufacturing of the product gets divided among the consumers and the manufacturers by the driving forces of the industry, or the competition present within the industry.
In the absence of an alternate to the product, a manufacturer could reap in higher value than the product is worth. Snack bars on highways charge more for their products than they would be able to charge in a city filled with snack bars. Since there is no other snack bar or a hotel for miles on the road, the snack bar that is present in any location of the highway, can charge his customers as much as wished, without the fear of losing him to a competitor. In the absence of competitors, manufacturers get to rave more profits, where as competition would bring down the prices to a value that would not be profitable to manufacturers.
Whenever the manufacturers earn a superfluous, it is not profit. When an industry faces severe competition, overflow of the products in the market, influential labor unions, the money generated against a product gets distributed among all the stake holders. The amount of profits that can be earned by a manufacturer depends on the three driving forces of the market.
• Value of the product in the eyes of consumers.
• Greatness or lowness of competition in the industry.
• Limit to where the negotiations between the manufacturers, suppliers can rest with the consumers.
Life Cycle:
At this point the product is on maturity stage as it gain advertisement in their buyer and their buyers are also well aware from their need and facilities in product. Price of the product cannot be increase because demand is not at stage where you increase the price and demand would also be increases. Now in near future as the figure in graph 2 represents, product would decline in some countries such as America and other developing countries but remain on maturity stage in other part of the world.
Demand and competition in the automobile industry
“Bearing a loss totaling $14.7 billion in the year 2008, Ford managed to scrape in profits totaling $6.6 billion in the year 2010, with a perspective to make even more the next year (Booth 2011).” The year 2007 & 2008 had been the worst for the economy all over the globe due to the sudden economic crunch. The automobile industry was severely wounded and the Ford had been a massive victim of the impact. Due to the high unemployment ratio in these two years, the demand for automobiles crashed because customers had no way of paying for the expensive cars.
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February 7, 2014

SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH

Social Identity and Prosocial and Antisocial Behavior in Youth Sport
The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of social identity on antisocial and prosocial behavior in youth from different teams and to determine whether there were any social identity effects caused by cohesion on both the prosocial and antisocial groups. Experiments were carried out and a random group of youth, both male and female was chosen. The total sample size was 329 and the average age of the participants in the experiment was 15.88 years. The chosen group of youth was required to complete questionnaires at the start, middle and the end of the season. Three social identity dimensions being considered were cognitive centrality, in-group affect and in-group ties. The experiment also assessed cohesion and prosocial and antisocial behavior of these youth toward opponents and teammates (Bruner, M, W., Boardley, I. D., & Cote, J. 2013, 16)
Data collected was analyzed and all variable measures of study proved to be reliable. The data indicated that in-group effect had a positive correlation with prosocial behavior. Task cohesion had a positive influence on the in-group ties with prosocial behavior but a negative effect on the in-group ties and in-group effects with antisocial behavior toward opponents and teammates. Social cohesion had a positive influence on the in-group ties with antisocial behavior toward their opponents and teammates. However, opponent prosocial behavior could not be predicted by any social identity dimensions. These findings indicate that social identity plays a primary role in influencing antisocial and prosocial behavior in youth, and alterations in cohesion may be used to some extent to explain these effects.
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Geometric Analysis

Answer 1
The equation of the circle is: x2 + 32x + y2 -24y = 0. When, x=0, y2 = 24y, then, y = sqrt(24) = 4.898. When y=0, x2 = 32x, then x = sqrt(32) = 5.656. First, we estimate the equation for line OA. This has 2 points, O and A. The coordinates are (-5.655, 4.898) and (-34.794, 18.840). Slope is given by m = y2-y1/x2-x1 = 18.84+5.655/-34.794-4.898 = 24.495/-39.692= -0.617. The equation of the line becomes, y = mx + b, then y = -0.617x + b. Here, we have 18.84 = -0.617(-34.794) + b, then, b = 18.84 – 21.468 = -2.628. The equation 1 is y = -0.617x -2.628.
Now, we estimate line OB. The coordinates are (-5.655, 4.898) and (-7.548, 30.126). Slope is given by m = y2-y1/x2-x1 = 30.126-4.898/-7.548-5.655 = 25.228/-18.102= -1.394. The equation of the line becomes, y = mx + b, then y = -1.394x + b. Here, we have 30.126 = -1.394(-7.548) + b, then, b = 30.126-10.522 = 19.604. The equation 2 is y = -1.394x + 19.604.
Now, we need the intersection point. Then, equating 1 and 2, we get, -0.617x -2.628 = -1.394x + 19.604. Then, we have, 0.777x = 22.232, then, x = 28.613. Then, y becomes, y = -1.394(28.613) + 19.604 = -20.282. Then, the coordinates of C become negative of these as we used the perpendicular lines and not the tangent lines. Then, C is (-28.613, 20.282).
Answer 2
We know, d2 = (x1-x2)sq + (y1-y2)sq, then, 39.498 = (63.983-x2) + (43.917-y2), when x=0, 39.498 = 43.917-y2, then y2 = 4.419. Likewise, when y2 = 0, 39.498 = 63.983-x2, then x2 = 24.485. Then P is (24.485, 4.419).

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Diet Coke

On March 14, 2013, Jennifer L. Pomeranz, Christina R. Munsell and Jennifer L. Harris wrote an article Energy Drinks: An emerging public health hazard for youth, and it was posted in The Journal of Public Health Policy advance in its online publication. These authors compare beverages available in the market based on their nutrient content, health hazards associated with them and their popularity among American citizens. Diet coke as a subject of the study is categorized under the approved beverages health wise. It is popular among the American population. Diet Coke is considered a healthy beverage since it contains no sugars. This makes it the preferred option for diabetics and also non-diabetics as well. The research also shows that it is favorite refreshment among the Americans making it one of the beverages easy to find stocked in communal refrigerators. Compared to other beverages in the market today like Pepsi, it sells large. This article appreciates the recognition of diet coke and its satisfaction or rather approval among its consumers.
Diet coke, which is one of the many products of Coca-Cola Company, is a beverage that has a large number of consumers globally. According to the Company, it majorly targets diabetic patients, but it can also be enjoyed by non-diabetic. It was first introduced to the American market in 1982, and it has since risen significantly in the market to become one of Coca-Cola’s best selling products. This low-sugar product comes in a well-labeled air tight 330ml can, which can be found in major outlets countrywide. It is easy to select when shopping since it has big colored letters ‘Diet Coke’ inscribed on the sides of the can. It is also a good choice for people who prefer not to consume a lot of calories since unlike regular Coke, which contains 142 calories, Diet Coke contains only 1.3 calories.
Over the years, since it was introduced to the market, diet coke has gained popularity with a lot of consumers ordering diet coke whenever they stop for refreshment. It is currently at its peak where the demand is so high that the Company has to increase its production each time. Many individuals prefer a product already established in the market, and approved by standards bureau, as well as the health board. Diet Coke is approved by these bodies and is, therefore, safe for consumption. It is also a non-alcoholic drink hence it is healthy for consumption by any age group.
As is the requirement for any food-related product, Diet Coke comes with an expiry date at the bottom of every can. Although preservatives are added to most products during packaging, this date is necessary to distinguish between fresh and stale products. Diet Coke is packaged in silver cans, which are shock resistant, and the name of the drink printed clearly on the sides of the cans. Also, on the can, is a mark of quality, information on ingredients used to prepare the drink, as well as the address of the manufacturing company. There is also a picture guiding the consumer on how to dispose the can after use since it is non-biodegradable, and can be harmful to the environment if not disposed well.

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The Need to Lower Minimum Drinking Age to 18

One of the issues that have remained highly controversial in the U.S. is the subject of minimum drinking age. The National Minimum Drinking Age Act of 1984, which set the minimum drinking age at twenty one, has been effective to date. At the time of its enactment, the law was expected to reduce alcohol-related accidents and teen drinking. The case is no different at the state level. All the fifty states have their minimum drinking age set at 21. Nearly thirty years down the line, the federal Act has continued to elicit mixed reactions from various quotas. Whether the federal and state laws on drinking age have achieved their intended goals is highly debatable. Teen drinking continues to be a major problem in the country, with some minors in elementary and high school reporting having taken alcohol at one point in their lives. Changing the drinking age from 21 to 18 years stands to benefit individual teenagers and the country at large.
The age 18 is an important yardstick on many fronts. Any person who has attained the age of 18 is recognized as an adult. Once an individual has turned eighteen, he or she is entitled to certain rights and responsibilities, including the rights to become jury members, enter into matrimony, vote, and sign business or other contracts. Worth noting is that come rights comes with responsibilities. Since 18-year olds are regarded as mature people, for instance, they have a duty to stand trial. Prior to engaging in any activity, an adult is fully aware of the risks involved and consequences, both intended and unintended. Why should it be different when it comes to alcohol consumption? As adults, eighteen-year olds should freely decide whether or not to consume alcohol. Consumption of alcohol is a leisure activity, and as such, 18-year old adults should be free to enjoy, though in a responsible way.
Despite the fact that consuming alcohol prior to turning 18 is illegal, the truth is that many Americans below 21 years still engage in drinking. According to national statistics, underage drinking makes up approximately 17.5 percent of total expenditure on alcohol drinks in the country. Alcohol consumption among minors remains rampant, with majority (more than 70%) of students in high school admitting to having taken alcohol at one given time. Arguably, this happens because those aged 18 and above are thrilled by the thought of going against the legislation to buy a drink. If the current drinking age of twenty-one was effective, we would not have such so many cases of underage drinking. Viewing alcohol use as something done in moderately and in a responsible manner has the potential of making drinking less of a proscription for youths joining institutions of higher learning and the workforce.
Due to the current legal minimum drinking age, majority of persons aged 18 and above are prohibited from drinking alcohol in public places such as restaurants, pubs, and market stores. As a result, most of these young adults are tempted to drink alcohol in environments that would generally be considered unsafe, notably house parties and fraternity houses. Consuming alcohol in such environments encourages undesirable drinking patterns such as binge drinking. Legalizing supervised alcohol consumption for those aged 18 and above would minimize the likelihood of participating in binge drinking and drinking in high-risk places.
The current legal minimum drinking age has many disadvantages. Not only has it failed to prevent minors from drinking alcohol but also encouraged unsafe drinking habits that expose young adults to many dangers. Changing the drinking age to eighteen would ensure that mature youths drink alcohol in controlled environments. Besides, it is the high time that the government recognized those aged 18 as mature people with rights and responsibilities.

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Victimization

According to the article about homelessness, victimization is factor responsible to homelessness. Most people who live in the streets are most likely victims of sexual abuse during their childhood, lack of care, family violence and family poverty. Victimization can be linked to the offending in the sense that most homeless people have been charged with property theft offences according to a study. These people are not normally charged with cases involving violence since most of the time they are looking for survival means, and; therefore, they are tempted to steal.

Homeless people are normally charged with violation of laws such as noise making, loitering and panhandling. These people become offenders easily because of peer pressure, mental illness, violent families, and drug abuse. Homeless people become offenders easily because after they have been released by the police they end up homeless again and are subjected to the conditions that led to their imprisonment. Studies have also shown that homeless people commit crimes in order to find temporary shelter especially during cold seasons.
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Gangnam Style

Even though it is the main song behind his popularity and that introduced him to the world, “ Gangnam Style” is not the first, but the 18th single to be released by South Korean artist, Psy. The song hit the airwaves as the first single off his new album titled “Psy 6(Six Rules)Part 1” on July 2012 and not only topped the Korean charts instantly, but was also met with runaway success worldwide(Vernallis 23).The video became the first on YouTube to surpass the one billion views mark by December of the same year and also became the most viewed video on the site, replacing “Baby” by Justin Bieber in this distinction.
“Gangnam Style” refers to a neologism on South Korean lingo that is closely paralleled with the kind of life associated with the District of Gangnam found in Seoul. The song, as well as its video, can simply be described to have gone viral on a global scale upon its release. A variety of factors have been debated in an effort to narrow down the reasons for the song’s success. Other than receiving the official recognition by the Guinness World Book of Records as the video with the highest number of views on YouTube, the song was also nominated for and subsequently won the MTV’s Music Awards of Europe Best Video, apart from inspiring reactions, parodies, flash mobs, organizations and groups, ranging from individuals to thousands of performers. On eve of new year in 2012, Psy performed to a sold out crowd on New York City’s Times Square, thereby cementing his worldwide super star status courtesy of just one single, “Gangnam Style”, in his long career(Shifman 31).It is therefore pertinent to ask this question- what exactly makes “Gangnam Style” so popular on the world stage?
First of all, Psy packages himself as a freak in the music video of “Gangnam Style” and this should explain the astronomical number of YouTube video views. It is stereotypical for South Korean music videos to be associated with pretty ladies and cute guys gyrating to hot music. However, Psy is 34years of age, short and plump and a very limited audience would associate his looks with the “cute” description. Psy is therefore simply a break away from the stereotypical view of South Korean music that it has come to be associated with. In addition to his looks and his age, the role which he plays in the video is also notable. The eye catching dance routine, the outlandish public display of crazy behavior and his even more outrageous costumes and that of his dancers completes the package of the video as viral material. It is not a common site to witness an artist in his middle ages trying so hard and yet so effortlessly at the same time to make a lasting impression on the audience.
Furthermore, Psy’s video is packed with humor and for most people, it is inevitable that they will laugh at one point or another, or at several points, when they view the video. All the freaky dance moves that Psy and his crew engage in serve to make the video eye-catching, engaging and interesting, but above all, they are laden with humor. In fact, if the element of fun is completely eliminated from the video, then this would effectively erode almost all of its unique appeal.
The “Gangnam Style” dancing style is also simple and very easy to learn. In just 4basic steps, you are good to go. It is an astounding achievement for Psy to be able to make such a unique video and still be able to encapsulate simplicity as the primary essence of the dance routine in it. This factor is absolutely important and must not be overlooked as it results in the wave on whose crest the popularity of “Gangnam Style” and its artist, ride on to the world stage- community participation. In fact Kevin Alloca, the Trends Manager at YouTube, included this factor as one of his top three reasons for the runaway popularity of the video on the site(Tieck 18).Anyone doubting this fact can simply countercheck it by typing the search phrase ” Gangnam Style Parody” in the site and not only the high number of results, but also the diversity in their areas of origin, from South Africa to Singapore, will be a sufficient answer.
It has also been repeatedly stated that the kind of music genre that “Gangnam Style” is classified under is also a significant contributor to its success. Electro house enjoys a huge audience, especially in Europe and America. Even though it is a general concurrence that the song resonates with most people from their first listening experience, the realization that it is from a genre that they already identify with often comes later, or does not even hit them at all. It is generally agreed that even though a tune may be catchy, its style must strike a chord with its audience, otherwise it is just a passing cloud. “Gangnam Style” electro house music genre is already massively popular and therefore associating with it has not posed a problem to the audience.
In conclusion, Psy combined a number of factors to deliver a massively popular song and video. The success of the song is not a fluke, but a rare coming together event of all the factors that could combine perfectly in a song.

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Macworld/iWorld Expo

Macworld/iWorld is a long time trade fair event organized to display Apple Macintosh platform. The event takes place for three or four days each year in San Francisco as well as other cities like Boston, Tokyo, London, and Washington D.C. This year’s San Francisco edition of the event took place for three days in the month of June. The main reason for the annual event is to show case the products by Macintosh, and other hardware and software providers. The program for this year’s event included the showcase of the exhibits as well as a conference where Apple leadership presented their innovations and products in the market. Registration platform was available through Macworld official website. Registration forms were available online, with many attendees registering through the same. This made the website very useful and efficient in terms of planning. The venue of the expo in San Francisco was a complex building that housed many exhibition booths and stalls. The numbers of booths were more than 100 in number. These included many companies that provide either software or hardware innovations.
This year’s event was also extensively marketed, with many media forms used to pass the message. The media used to sensitize the public included print, Macintosh publications, and newspaper. Digital platform played an important role in fulfilling the same. Online Ads were utilized in an attempt to bring awareness to as many people as possible. The main sponsors of the event were the International Data Group (IDG) and Apple Macintosh. This year’s event was more of displaying the innovations through the iphone and ipad products.
Many posters had been put in place to ensure that the public was aware of the Macworld/iWorld event. These included huge electronic billboards along streets with motion adverts illustrating the changes brought by new Apple iphone and ipad products. These were important in directing the people into the venue of the event. The packing was situated within the facility, with the main packing outside the building and the extra space at the basement of the complex building. Another important fact was that entrance and exit were well situated to avoid traffic congestions during peak hours. At the main entrance of the expo complex, all attendees were required to register at a room just beside the entrance, with directional signage directed to the place. This position was convenient to avoid confusion. Furthermore, attendants were at hand to help those who needed assistance. Another important thing was the attractiveness of the whole arena, with lighting all over.
Inside the arena, many events took place with different exhibitions going on at various points. It was great to see electronic signage giving directions to where different exhibitors displayed their products. However, the many events taking place at the same time worked against some of the plans. For instance, Steve Jobs and other leaders were busy unveiling a new interactive innovation to the attendees while other exhibitions were open. This caused many people to miss the important part of the event. All other exhibitions could have been closed for all to attend the unveiling of a new product by Apple. There was an overall program that showed the attendees on the special programs that were to take place over the three days. However, it also had a list of all exhibitors taking part in the expo. Individual exhibitors had their own informational materials to educate the attendees on their products, something that made work easier.
In conclusion, it is a fact that the 2013 San Francisco Macworld/iWorld was one of the best events I have ever attended. The preparation from the online registration to the main event was awesome. The organizers took time to plan for the success of the event. However, the fact that the event takes place annually must have played a major role. They already knew what to do to be successful. The environment was friendly and technology showcase was excellent.

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The Impacts of Recent Tsunami Catastrophes

The Impacts of Recent Tsunami Catastrophes
Tsunamis, which are also refer to as seismic waves, have in recent times affected many parts of the world. They occur as a result of strong earthquakes that occur below the sea floor. Large destructive tsunamis have serious devastating effect in any society. Different societies respond in different ways to counter destructive effects of tsunamis and the associated state of devastation. The recent tsunami catastrophes for instance in Tahiti, and Japan have led to various economic, political, and social problems (Ryder 23).
The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami
The videos indicate very serious devastating effects of tsunami to the society. The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami in the first video show how the disaster affected North Sumatra province. Strong waves resulted in destruction of bridges and roads (Alexander 56). It also destroyed homes and property, leaving people with nothing. Additionally, the waves destroyed many facilities along the coastal lines making it technically difficult for navy ship to dock.
The spring 2011 Japan Tsunami
This catastrophe devastated japan, towards the east coast. It affected people in different ways and led to destruction of many facilities and infrastructure. It led to loss of life and other effects in the adjacent environs like Philippines. From the video, it is evident that the waves swept across crops, vehicles, homes, triggering fires (Smil 99). This affected normal day to day activities and livelihood of persons in Sendai and islands.
Fukushima Nuclear Disaster
This disaster was initiated by Tōhoku tsunami. As shown from the video, the tsunami caused serious damages which also produced equipment failures and meltdown of various nuclear reactors (Ryder 51). This led to exposure of radiations to the environment that resulted in serious health problems to the population and deaths. As a result of this, radioactive materials were emitted that led to further health risks from diseases like cancer (Kershaw, and Byron 33-4). Very many people, about 150000 were also forced to flee as a result heath of effects of radioactive contamination (Shaw 17-8). This catastrophe was also marked with fires in neighborhoods since the meltdown affected the entire facility.
General Impacts of Tsunami Catastrophes
The recent tsunami catastrophes have generated very serious ecological and human disaster across the globe. Firstly, tsunamis often result in severe economic problems in any society. Tsunamis occur with destruction of property, uprooting of the infrastructure of the community and even disrupts power supply in any given environment (Joseph 42). This in turn results in dramatic reduction in production capacity and economic potential of the community since such destructions thwart industrial production (Shaw 67).
There are also social effects of tsunamis in the society. For instance, the Fukushima disaster brought several social effects in Japan. A disaster like tsunami leads to loss of life and property and even displacement of people (Tsuchiya 75). In most cases, displacement of people and loss of property has impacts on dignity of the people affected and well as their social and psychological wellbeing (Penna, and Rivers 76-8). Additionally, the manner of response, whether orderly or not also affects the social standing of a given society.
In conclusion, tsunamis have brought serious damaging effects to the society. These disasters have led to loss of life, destruction of homes, crops, infrastructure and other sensitive facilities. This results into economic, social and even environmental problems that usually affect the society for a long period of time. In the long run, the society becomes weak and vulnerable.

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Internet

The discovery of the Internet is gradually turning out to be one of the greatest discoveries made by man. A network of networks, the Internet serves as a global data communications system that links millions of private, public, academic, and business networks via an international telecommunications backbone that consists of various electronic and optical networking technologies. The impact of the Internet on human civilization is virtually impossible to condense as it is all-encompassing. Even though the Internet has brought about far-reaching positive implications, there have been adverse negative effects on the society.
The Internet appears to have had a negative impact on the level of the market shares of many newspapers. Traditional newspapers seem to have been caught flat footed by the sudden inception of the Internet. Newspaper conglomerates are grappling with the competition posed by the Internet. Advertising revenue accounts for about eighty percent of newsprint income. Inopportunely for newspapers, company advertisers are relying more profoundly on inexpensive and more dynamic online marketing space. With such melodramatic reductions in advertising revenue, traditional newspapers have been forced to cut expenditures. Staffing department has suffered immensely because labor costs constitute a significant percent of newsprint expenses. A CQ Researcher writes, “The decisions illuminate the plight of most U.S newspapers, which are losing advertisers to online media and struggling to profit from their own Internet activities” (p.1). Therefore, there is a need to regulate the access of the Internet in order to shield one of the oldest industries from plummeting (Betancourt 6).
Social networking sites like Facebook, Twitter, and MySpace allow individuals connect and interact with virtually anyone in the world. However, these sites can make it more problematic to differentiate between the important relations and the copious casual relationships fashioned through social media websites. The proximity delivered by these sites is accessible to marauders as well as friends. Children are particularly susceptible to the practice of cyber-bullying in which the offenders, in disguise or even posturing as people their victims trust, intimidate and terrify individuals in front of their peers. Additionally, the most bizarre incidents have taken place thanks to social media. Anything controversial can now spread like wild fire in social media. The story of Mary Bale is one typical example of virtual mob justice. Mary Bale was clobbered ‘online’ when she perpetrated an offense that angered animal rights activists. She tossed a cat in a wheelie bin but unfortunately, was caught by a CCTV camera and later on uploaded on Facebook. Holson reported, “Hate pages popped up on Facebook, among them, “Mary Bale should be locked up for putting Lolathe cat in a bin,” which garnered 20,796 fans, and “Death to Mary Bale,” which Facebook later took down” (p. 1). Though guilty, Mary Bale has suffered psychologically because of the hate messages directed at her across social media networks. It could have been worse if she were not guilty of an offence. Consequently, such incidents and many more can be avoided if the Internet is regulated.
Access to the Internet can augment children school-based learning and can be a tool for resourceful and scholarly work with the rest. Nonetheless, the Internet usage can take children away from engaging in imperative things as homework, errands, and spending time with relatives. There is a grave concern about the propagation of incongruous content like violence, prejudice, hate speech, sacrilege, and pornography. The Internet gives youngsters an easy access to find information and it allows messages to find their way to children. Since child pornography is a prohibited underground business, it is impossible to regulate the number of children involved in its production. Child pornography causes a lot of harm. Even though, the society has tried to control pornographic materials found on the Internet, it is possible to come up with regulatory body comprising experts from the field of technology in view of providing a lasting solution (Zillman et al. 67).
In a word, there is an immense need to regulate information on the Internet in order to save human civilization. There is no doubt about the positive impact the Internet has created, but it is important to note that it has come with an almost equal share of negative impact. Traditional newspapers can easily be rescued if there is an online policy with regard to the advertisements and access to newspapers content. In the same breath, offences that can be put to rest with regulation are such as cyber bullying, access to private information, and pornography. There is an urgent need to keep sanity in the face of rapid innovations and development. The face of humanity needs to be restored. The answer to this questions lies squarely on regulation of the Internet.
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Auditing Questions

1. Examples of audit objectives dealing with assets are,
i. Existence of the assets, this objective is fit with the assertion that there should be balances for the asset account and the best evidence technique is communicating with debtors directly.
ii. Rights to the assets, this objective fits with the assertion that the company rightfully owns the assets. It is evidenced by checking liabilities to see if the assets are sold.
iii. Completeness of the assets is best fit with the assertion that the assets have all been reported fully and its evidence technique is checking the shipment documents.
iv. Cutoff of the transactions is fit with the assertion that transactions are all recorded in the correct period and its evidence technique is vouching of all transactions performed close to the end of the period.
v. Valuation of the assets is fit with the assertion that assets have been recorded at their correct value and its evidence technique is investigating the credit rates associated with the company.
2. Independence Impairment
The independence of a firm is impaired if an auditing partner or staff owns more than 5% of the clients equity or any other kind of ownership during their work involvement period. If the firm is involved with the client as their trustee or director during their work then the firm’s independence is impaired. An individual’s independence is impaired if in the course of his/her professional involvement had direct financial interests with the client however this applies to the covered members only.
The firms independence is also impaired if one of the staffs in the audit group has a relative with a very important position or has substantial financial interests with the client and the auditor knows. For example if A is the audit firm, then B is a covered member and he/she had been in a professional involvement with their client and had financial interests with the client then the firms independence is impaired.
3. Management Assertions
i. Existence, in the income statement this is the assertion as to whether the recorded transactions actually occurred.
ii. Rights or obligations, this is about a balance sheet and it is the assertion as to whether the business rightfully owns the assets.
iii. Completeness, for the assertion is all the business undertakings of the company must be recorded.
iv. Cutoff and this asserts that the transactions should all be recorded within that financial reporting time.
v. Valuation, in a balance sheet valuation is the assertion as to the proper recording of the assets or liabilities at their correct value.
vi. Presentation and disclosure and in this the information provided in the company’s financial statements should have all the disclosures.
4. Risk Factors Effect on Audit Risk or Fraud
There are various risk factors, which can lead to an increase or decrease in audit risk or creation of fraud. If the financial statements of a company have misstatements, which are material to the company, and the auditors do not find them then this will lead to an increase in audit risk. The financial health of the client can increase or decrease the audit risks. The quality of corporate governance can increase or decrease audit risk as well as creation of fraud. If the operations in a company are dominated by one person then it is likely that it will lead to an increase in audit risk and lead to creation of fraud. When the management is trying to limit the ‘scope of audit’ then this may lead to an increase in audit risk.
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Process versus Data Model

Companies and organizations face challenges due to the significant amount of data they handle. This is mainly a problem when they are to share data with other institutions as the issues of quality and time spent becomes a problem. This calls for models, like data model, to help in handling the information easily. This was what Portuguese National Health System required to improve their quality of data, and the time spent as the system was manual in some stations. The adoption of data model changed how the hospital performed by increasing efficiency and improving the quality of data processed. This was made possible by improving their model, which replaced activities to real-time. Data models are useful in upgrading complex systems like the Portuguese National Health System.
The Information System for Surgery Management was mandated to be collecting information from all national and private hospitals that offered elective surgery. However, the number of private hospitals grew too fast in 2007 that the handling of the information was becoming a challenge (Cristovao & Gomes, 2012, p.363). One of the significant problems that needed rectification was the creation of multiple interfaces, which could collect information from all the hospital and maintain a minimum data quality. This quality problem was crucial as the system was becoming ineffective as the already existing one was overwhelmed by 1000GB of data and some of the tasks were manually performed. This became a challenge for the system users and the national intelligence while determining the demand and supply of elective surgery. A new model was fast required to save the integrity of the system and ensure quality data from the system.
A data model was adopted to streamline the services of the system. This was started in 2011and finished in 2012. It involved the removal of all manual procedures and replaced them with automated ones (Claudia & Petrusel, 2012, p.119). This system became reliable as it showed real-time care offered to patients and allowed the evaluation of demand and supply for elective surgeries. This is because multiple information is uploaded into the database by hospitals at real-time. Moreover, the system was also extremely helpful in saving time and resources, as fewer people were involved. The installation of the design saved as it currently takes five days to process data from an initial10 days in the past. The system was able to monitor the different hospitals by giving reports to several entities. The model, therefore, helped to improve the quality of services for the system by 64% (Cristovao & Gomes, 2012, p. 371). The model is beneficial and effective in improving the quality of data in a system where it is correctly utilized.
Therefore, data models are helpful in organizations that use large sets of data and requiring fast processing of information. The model ensured that the hospital system in Portugal created quality and helpful information to different people and the government. The automation of the process improved the speed through which data was processed and saved funds and resources. The customized reports were crucial, and the real-time data ensured that there was reliable information generated from the model. This was evident from the way efficiency improved by 64 percent. Quality information is, therefore, vital in producing historical reports and predict about elective surgeries so that the hospitals can save the lives of patients. It also encourages the development of sound policies due to the intelligence and knowledge attained from the system.

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Iodine: Importance to Health

Fact 1
Places with iodine poor soils are likely to experience significant cases of iodine deficiency. Iodine is trace element usually found in soil and in water but only in very low quantities (Frank 34). However, Iodine is abundant in ocean waters. Mount Merrapi of Java, in Indonesia, is one of the most active volcanoes in the world. Soils around the mountain are very fertile making it suitable for agriculture but it the soil lacks iodine. The villagers who live around the mountain are facing the widespread cases of IDD- because the crops produced from the soil lack iodine. Indonesia. The video shows that many families in the village down the slopes of Mount Merrapi have children and adults who are sick because of the lack of iodine in their body.
Fact 2
Iodine is necessary for thyroid function (Frank 40). The thyroid glands affects various bodily functions and iodine is required fro the proper functioning of thyroids. Lack of iodine in the diet can result in IDD-iodine deficiency disorders such as poor thyroid function, increase in the size of gland leading to goiter. In this case, the enlargement of the thyroid gland occurs as it seeks iodine in the body. Many teenage girls in the Indonesian village near mount Merrapi suffer from goiter because during puberty, the girls require high- amount of iodine in their diet.
Fact 3
Iodine supplementation can help lessen the effects of IDD and this is often done through the intake of iodized salts (Frank 66). Table salt serves as a common salt of iodine across the globe as well as plants grown in soils that are rich in iodine. Iodine deficiency is more widespread than many people realize. With over a million people in Indonesia at risk of goiter, this reflects the extent of the problem across the globe. Many doctors across the globe are of the opinion that cases of IDD are on the rise because of lack of iodine in many people’s diet. In the case of people living down the slopes of Mount Merrapi, most of the stores falsely package salt without iodine as iodized salt. The consumers purchase the salts thinking that it is iodized yet it is not and this leads cases of iodine deficits.
Fact 4
Iodine deficiency in a woman during pregnancy increases the risk of mental retardation or brain damage among infants. This occurs because proper amounts of iodine are required for the development and growth of the brain. Iodine deficiency results into a severe and irreversible problem of mental retardation (Frank 75). The case of villagers living near Indonesia’s mount Merrapi confirms that lack of iodine in the body can cause mental and physical retardation.
Fact 5
Cretinism which is characterized by severe and irreversible mental and physical retardation is one of the consequences of IDD (Frank 89). The mental retardation is characterized by the drop in a victim’s IQ by 10-20 points. Children who are suffering from IDD tend to perform poorly at school due to their negative effect of iodine deficiency to their mental capacity.
Conclusion
It is important for a person working in global health to be aware of these facts because iodine serves as an essential mineral that plays an integral role in the development of brain in children and this makes iodine deficiency a leading cause of preventable mental retardation across the globe. Across the world, over 800 million to 2 billion people face the risk of IDD-Iodine Deficiency Disorders and these estimates are likely to rise if intervention measures are not taken.

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Analysis of 2 T notes and 1 Corp Bond

Introduction
While investing in portfolios may serve as an effective way of managing one’s finances towards achieving an ultimate financial goal, it is always important to analyses the potential and feasibility of an investment opportunity before including the investment as part of one’s portfolio (Hyung and Casper 123). While the share/stock/T Bill price of a potential investment opportunity may be the most possible feature characteristic to it, investors must understand that various forces and characteristics also contribute to indicating the feasibility of an investment and effectively apply the understanding of these forces to make ideal investment decisions. This paper presents an overview of the various factors that are likely to influence the US stock market performance and presents an analysis of a portfolio with three different investments. Through these analysis, the reports illustrates the external and internal forces that contribute to influencing the performance of an investment.
Analysis of external factors
While the price of an investment may be majorly influenced by the financial strength of the stock or investment, it is important to note that some external factors also influence the performance of potential and current portfolios and investments. One significant example of an external factor capable of influencing stock prices is constant debates regarding the government budgets. Impending fiscal debates may result in additional risks to finance markets and the economy at large. While financial markets are yet to be affected by the forecasts of a standoff. This will be a major disaster considering the commendable performance of the S&P 500 stock index, which recorded a 20% growth this year alone, as at September 20, positioning US stocks on way for its best yearly profitability in the last four years (Dorning, 2013).
The looming debts crisis in US stock market is also a significant factor that may negatively influence the perception of investors towards investing in the US stock market. Credit default swaps related to US T Bills, which usually increase as the perception of investors regarding creditworthiness reduces, traded in September at a 0.23% point (Dorning, 2013). This is considerably low and shows negative indications comparing that the scores for the last three years have remained an average of 41 basis points (Dorning, 2013).
The potential for increased inflation in the near years to come also serves has an effect on US stock performances. Historically, a low inflation rate singingly inversely correlates with stock prices, meaning that high inflation rates will result in low stock prices. The impending increase in the inflation rate in US market thus indicates potential negative trends in the stock prices and the stock market in general (Dorning, 2013). Substitutes also contributes to the bonds or international investment opportunities also contribute to the performance of the stock market with companies competing for liquid investment with other asset classes internationally. While the relationship between US equity demands and other substitute stocks may be difficult to figure, international stocks play a significant role.
Portfolio Analysis
The factors used to tools used for the analysis of the portfolio strengths are the The Yield To Maturity (YTM) and the Weighted Average Cost of Capital. The Yield to Maturity (YTM) refers to the time required for a bond to reach its maturity date (Hatem, Forbes and Paul 50). The YTM is a significant tool for computing a portfolio’s benefits as it makes the investor aware of the specific time at the investment may be liquated (Hsu, Kalesnik and Li 12). Owing to the complex nature of the market, a coefficient, referred to as the beta is used to compute the YTM of a stock so as to enable easier portfolio management. The Weighted Average Cost of Capital on the other hand, indicates the mean returns the investor will get from an investment at the YTM (Eskandari and Zadeh 196). For the portfolio under analysis, it can be seen that the bonds have varying weights and interest rates, which necessitates the analysis of the range efficiency of holding this portfolio.
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Climate Change

Introduction
Climate change refers to the variations in the mean and variables of climate properties that persists over long periods and results in one among the most crucial and common problems in the current world. Often, climate change results from human activities or natural gases and has both physical and economic effects on the world and people (Climate Change Cell n.p).
Indeed, climate changes have already devastated and frustrated human lives all over the globe through various ways including disasters, diseases, famines, droughts, and floods. If nothing is done about emissions of greenhouse gases, the effects are likely to intensify. Hence, this paper discusses theories of climate change, its effects, and ways to reduce it through hybrid cars and fuel.
Theories of Climate Change
This section presents seven theories that can be used to understand the factors that affect the conditions of the earth. Many of the theories give a summary of the effects of climatic changes and could be used to predict the future for the earth. First, anthropogenic global warming theory is a popular theory of carbon dioxide. It states that emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrogen oxides cause rise in global temperatures. This causes enhanced greenhouse effect (Joseph 6).
Second, bio-thermostat theory states that negative response from biological and chemical processes are likely to offset any possible positive feedback resulting from increasing levels of CO2. The processes act like global bio-thermostats by keeping temperatures at equilibrium (Joseph 8).
Third, cloud formation theory contends that during formation and albedo of clouds, a feedback is created that reduces the effects of greenhouse gases (Joseph 12). Albedo refers to the process by which clouds reflect solar radiations. The clouds are a major factor in temperature regulation of the earth. Fourth, human forces behind greenhouse gases theory postulates that human activities like clearing forests, irrigation of desserts, and urbanization have great impacts on climate (Joseph 14). Fifth, ocean currents theory states that variations in global temperature over the past decades have been a result of slowdowns in oceanic thermohaline circulation. Occurrences of El Niño, La Niño, and pacific oscillations have affected global temperatures (Joseph 17).
Sixth, Planetary motion theory contends that global warming can be related to natural and magnetic oscillations in the solar system caused by movement of the earth in space. They affect solar radiation that in turn causes climate change (Joseph 20). Finally, solar variation theory states that recent warming is attributed to variations of solar radiation and will account for climate changes regardless of human activities (Joseph 23).
Effects and Affects of Climate Change
Climate change has both physical and socioeconomic effects. This paper will discuss the physical effects first. Over a decade, the records of temperatures have indicated a rising trend of global temperatures. This is known as global warming. Whenever greenhouse gases are released into the atmosphere, they can stay there for decades or thousands of years. Consequently, the gases increases temperature, which in turn is likely to cause high precipitation and has fewer effects on storms (Climate Change Cell n.p).
The rising temperatures of water in oceans will automatically lead to more frequent and strong hurricanes. In addition, increased temperatures cause drought in many areas. However, certain areas of the world will experience wetter climate while others are suffering from droughts and high temperatures. In fact, Africa and Europe are likely to be affected by the droughts and severe heat waves. Incidences of rising sea levels will increase because of the melting ice caps in the polar. As a result, severe events of fire are likely to become more frequent due to increasing temperatures and precipitation. Fires in bushes and forest could cause burns, damage due to inhalation of smoke, and other injuries (Richard 4).
On the other hand, climate change has social effects on aspects such as health, food production, and growth. Climate change causes tremendous spread of certain infectious diseases and increase death rates related to heat waves. Climate change would affect the health conditions of people through malnutrition, high death rates, frequent occurrence of diseases and injuries, and diarrhea due to extreme changes in weather. In addition, high concentration of ozone gases at ground level causes cardio-respiratory diseases in urban areas (Richard 14).
On the advantageous side, climate change in temperate regions will result in reduced death rates from exposure to cold. Similarly, it has varying effects on transmission of malaria in Africa. In general, negative social effects of climate change in developing countries will outweigh its benefits.
Release of CO2 into the atmosphere, rising temperatures, precipitation, and increased occurrences of extreme events as well as weeds and pesticides because climate change that affects agricultural activities and food production processes across the globe. To be specific, low-latitude areas will most likely experience low production of crops (Climate Change Cell n.p).
In summary, climate change has physical and social effects. The physical effects include increased temperatures, famines, high precipitation, and high sea levels. On the other hand, social effects include low food production due to high temperatures, spread of diseases and many others. The effects are unlikely to reduce unless a quick action is taken to curb the adverse climatic changes.
How to Preserve Environment
While the adverse climate change that destroys the world is a result of human activities, the same human beings are able to protect and sustain the environment. Global warming is an effect of climate change that is too big for on person to solve. However, every individual can cause positive changes that can environment safe and sustainable. For instance, the use of hybrid cars and efficient fuel can preserve the environment (Climate Change Cell np).
Currently, transport sector is a major source of environmental air pollution. A number of harmful emissions from vehicles have been identified that affect the health of the public and the environment. The emissions include gases such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide, hydrocarbons, benzene, and other greenhouse gases. Fortunately, new technology has led to invention of cars that are more efficient and release less toxic gases. Today, hybrid cars are the cleanest vehicles (Richard 56).
Traditional cars are always dirty because they depend on internal combustion engines that use fossil fuels like oils. On the contrary, hybrid cars are powered by electric motors that use batteries and internal combustion engines is only used when necessary. This results in efficient cars that emit fewer gases. Consequently, hybrid cars are very efficient in fighting global warming and must be adopted by everyone.
Conclusion
Climate change is explained by seven theories as discussed in this paper. The theories give a summary of the effects of climatic changes that could be used to predict the future for the earth. Climate change has both physical and socioeconomic effects. This paper discusses the physical effects and social effects. While the adverse climate change that destroys the world is a result of human activities, the same human beings are able to protect and sustain the environment. Of this importance, hybrid cars are very efficient in fighting global warming and must be adopted by everyone.

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Critique 4 FH

What is the problem statement of the article?
The authors in the article wanted to investigate the participation behavior of the students across the collaborative learning activities in an online course. The authors wanted to find out if there exists any relationship amid the entire class and the behavior of a small group. The results of the study showed that the participation quantity of the individuals in the small groups was significantly linked with their own participation behavior in the entire class discussions.
What is the significance of the research?
In recent times, the online learning platform has been applied in various classes and serves a great aid in the learning process. The teacher in an online course serves a role of moderator across the process of collaboration and as a result there a need for the teachers when allocating the students to have suitable method of allocation instead of following the random or adopting a self allocation method. The findings of the article help to highlight the value of making use of the proper grouping methods so as to increase collaboration and participation.
The instructor through being able to learn the methods to use in the online course can help monitor the participation behavior to better assist and plan the students. The instructors can be able to examine the student’s participation behavior in the first class discussion and be able to allocate the students to groups. Hence, the authors recommend a teacher driven systematic group formation process rather than the random assignment or self allocation applied to the online course platform.
What do you think about the adequacy of the research methods?
The methods used by the authors are the quantitative methodological techniques such as correlation, z-score, and regression so as to analyze the provided data. The participation quantity was used for the purpose of identifying the inactive or active students. The participants who were inactive were comparatively determined through Z-scores calculation in the entire class discussions. However, there were limitations in the methods of the research which affect the findings generalizability. For instance, the data which was involved in the study was collected from one graduate online course having only 24 students (Jahng & Bullen, 2012 P. 4). The sample number might not be a real representative of the entire study. Moreover, both the small and the whole class group’s behavior were planned as less structured where the learners were permitted with maximum autonomy to preside their learning. The patterns of the participation and the behaviors might be different in the event that the research was carried out in a course planned to comprise of various structured activities with numerous students. Moreover, the use of the correlation analyses is another research limitation. Correlation in most cases does not equate to causation. The participation behaviors high correlations amid the small group and whole group are not essentially a cause and effect relationship. Hence, a preceding variable in the time sequential settings does not suggest strongly a predictive factor for the variable that follows.
Is the research outcome convincing?
The outcome of the research is informative and hence convincing. A majority of the previous research has investigated participation in the online course through analyzing the written communication in the entire class discussion and in the smallest activities of the group a majority of the research has connected with involvement in both of the setting, but only a few of the studies have explored in the relationship involving participation behaviors in both the settings across the course. The discussion of the solution is thus insightful and intelligent and represents the outcomes very effectively. The authors have convincingly shown the value of making use of the proper grouping methods so as to increase collaboration and participation
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Super-Replicators and Truism

There are different beliefs accepted by humans as the plain truth. Alterations to such beliefs are inadmissible because they are said to threaten social norms and dynamics of a society. This is the essence of truism and is defined as a statement that is self-evident and factual in nature. Deviations from such statements are unnecessary and unacceptable, meaning that there is no need to prove a truism statement correct because it is by any standards. As Daniel Gilbert asserts, beliefs are transmitted from one person to another such as the case of gene transmission. In his discussion, he calls the transferable truism beliefs are super-replicators. This assertion may apply to a number of truisms in different ways. It is significant to evaluate how some truisms are transmitted to understand certain underlying factors such as accuracy in transmission.
Considering one particular truism can be helpful in doing such an evaluation. There is a common truism stating that men are not devils and neither are they angels (Mitchell 44). The character of men as far as the two attributes are concerned is average, implying that it is neither on one extreme. This makes a system that depicts variance in any of the attributes necessary or possible. A closer look into this truism reveals that humans can be good or bad. People should accept the fact that being either good or bad is inevitable and is a must occur scenario. It becomes necessary for people to bear with each other and accept the possibility of one being either good or bad. This is referred to as the limited altruism (44).
Gilbert (213) states that if a large number of people hold a certain belief, then chances of transmission of such a belief increases. The description of limited altruism suggests that people accept the fact that there are good and bad personalities amongst them, and nothing can be done about the situation. Circumstantial evidence strengthens this belief further in the sense that good and evil activities exist in every society. The belief of the majority in this fact is perhaps the reason security measures are taken proactively. Despite the presence of good (angels) people in the society, people assume that the bad ones must exist and that humanity can never be ideal by any means. The fact is that humans have the ability to choose good from bad, and can decide to be positive. There is no need to believe in the presence of ‘devils’ amongst members of the society. According to this truism, the contrary is true, an assumption that portrays the society as a mix blended with good and evil. This also shows that many people believe and accept this truism, implying that its transferability is high. Many future generations are likely to adopt the belief and easily pass it to their progeny.
Transmission of this truism is evidently self-perpetuating. Gilbert states that transmission is facilitated by a belief itself irrespective of whether it is false or true (214). Beliefs transmit from one generation to another by facilitating their own process of transmission. Given that many people believe in limited altruism and conduct their day-to-day activities with respect to these beliefs, it is correct to say that the belief is self-perpetuating. This means that the many people believing in the same enable the transmission of the belief. It is also important to note that the belief in this truism is dominant. This is because virtually everybody accepts it the way it is without any reservations on whether it is true or not. This promotes the transmission process of the belief.
It is difficult to quantify any resistance to this belief. People hold onto its facets so tightly, to the extent of rejecting any form of counter argument. An ideal world does not exist, and evil will always be there at any one given time. This cannot be farther from the truth if the ever-present occurrences of crime is anything to by in any society. There is no doubt that the idea behind this belief can shape individual understanding of self and society. From this belief, the society comes out as a single social system that embraces the presence of good and bad. This shows that people should always prepare for good and bad to happen any time. The influence of this belief an individual level is also the same. Despite being aware that a society can be purely made of good, circumstantial evidence is more persuasive that an ideal society is not practical. A society will always comprise of good and bad people, and their actions felt every day.
In conclusion, the concept of super-replicators can be said to apply to all beliefs that are considered truisms. This means that it only requires a society to have concrete beliefs in something for it to be transmitted to generations. Irrespective of whether a belief is positive, negative, or mixed as it is with limited altruism, transmission is possible courtesy of super replication. This confirms that the concept of super-replicators applies to the social transmission of ideas.

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How Massage Therapies Can Assist Depressed Patients

Abstract
Depression is a mental illness characterized by sad moods which last longer than a few days to a point it interferes with the regular day to day activities. Depression is a severe illness which is common within the society. An estimated 19 million Americans are affected by this condition at any time of the year. It is so general that it has been nicknamed the common cold of the mind. Not only does it cause suffering to those who are affected, but also those closer to them. Around 10 to 15 percent of women and 5 to 12 percent of men will be affected by depression at any point in their lives.
The good news is that there are effective methods of treating depression. The bad news is that only about 30 percent of those depressed shall be treated. This is unfortunate as 70 to 80 percent of those diagnosed with depression can recover in a week or less. Although there are different methods of treating depression, the most effective involve using hypnotherapy and massage. The goal of this study is to identify different types of depression and how massage therapy can help someone with depression (Wiley Online Library, 2008).
Major depression Disorders
In order to effectively apply massage therapy to help in healing depression, it is necessary to understand the different types of depression. This helps a therapist to apply the most effective type of massage. This is because there are different types of depression and they yield different results.
Situational Depression
This type of depression affects people who lead stressful lives with overwhelming conditions. For example, it could be a result of the loss of a loved one or a financial loss. In the case of the loss of a loved one, depression kicks in during the mourning period. Due to the fact that mourning is normal, depression can go unnoticed in the affected individual. After the situation changes, massage can be effective in helping the client recover.
Family origin depression
There are other forms of depression that originate from unresolved family issues and are more psychological in nature. The roots of this type of depression can go all the way back to childhood. This gives the body ample time to develop depression and collapse the mental structure of reality. Symptoms can get worse when the situation linked to the depression occurs. This can also raise the level of biochemical endorphins (New Zealand Organization of Mental Health, 2013).
Moderate Depression
This is triggered by no perceptible events. It often comes in a cycle that can even be on a time of the year. These clients are in most cases placed on long term medications and therapy programs. There are substantial biochemical changes in endorphin structures. This is due to the severity and longevity of moderate depression. It is very essential that a mental health professional monitors a moderate depressed client during a massage therapy.
Severe Depression
This type of depression often requires medical attention and heavy medication and chemical therapy. In this case, the client will usually require massage after the clinical treatment is concluded. It is critical that the massage therapist work together with a psychotherapist and/or a psychiatrist to prevent potential relapse that can even lead to suicide.
Chronic depression
It is in most cases a moderate to severe type of depression. Clients with this type of depression are treated by mental health specialists and are under heavy medication and therapy. Endorphin structures, collapse significantly due to the longevity of the condition. These patients too need to be monitored carefully by a mental specialist (National Library of Medicine, 2008).
Symptoms and medications
The depressed person shows agitation and restlessness. He or she may withdraw from the social life. The person may show loss of appetite and fatigue or lack of energy. A depressed person also shows feelings of helplessness and hopelessness. A depressed person also shows feelings of worthlessness and guilt which leads to thoughts of death or suicide.
The most popular Western medications for depression are antidepressants that belong to a group of drugs called serotonin reuptake inhibitors. They include Citalopram (Celexa), Fluoxetine (Prozac), Sertraline (Zoloft), Paroxetine (Paxil), Escitalopram (Lexapro). However, they come with side effects like vomiting, diarrhea, nausea, and rashes amongst a few. It is necessary that patients are monitored when taking these medications so that they do not develop into other complicated conditions.
Herbs, mainly from the Eastern are also very popular in treating depression. They utilize flowers, leaves, berries, stem and roots. Most of these herbs also work by regulating neurotransmitters in the brain and can be in the form of tablets or powder. They include St. John’s Wort, Siberian Ginseng, Valerian, Passionflower and Ginko Biloba amongst few. Most of these herbs are originally from China and India. It is very necessary that a person who is being treated with these herbs to be carefully monitored by a trained mental professional.
Use of therapy as an aid for treatment
There are subtle physiological and energetic challenges to those involved in giving
therapy as an aid to clients with depression. It is in physiological challenges that massage therapies come to aid. This is because physiological challenges are often impossible to overcome for conventional medicine. In all the above cases of depression, there is a substantial degree of structural damage to the client. This depends on the severity and the duration of the depression.
There are different types of techniques of massage used in treating depression which we shall consider in this study.
Manual techniques: This is mainly the Swedish massage which emphasizes on relaxation strokes. Trigger therapy is especially significant as it can detect specific areas with muscular tension and pain. This is especially effective when the therapy is performed in both stretched and shortened positions of each muscle.
Cranio-sacral techniques: These are performed when a client has a cranial base compression. It is also performed when it is caught under the occipita, the occipital axial release can result in immediate migraine relief and any mental fog that typically accompanies the restriction.
Stretching: This usually involves deep and slow stretching especially for the muscles located in the upper cervical part of the body. This results in tension alleviation especially around the neck and shoulder regions. Yoga is especially good for this method as it helps to stretch the whole body while at the same time emphasizes in relaxation through focused breathing.
Homecare: One way this is accomplished is by plugging noise blocking earphones so as to the client can focus his or her attention inward. Although one can still hear sounds outside the body, they provide a kind of humming experiences which helps the mind to relax. Also, the rhythm of the breathing also helps more to relax the mind.
More importantly, massage therapy helps the client to experience the stressful feelings while at the same time nurturing them and developing them into positive feelings. Massage therapists are careful not to try to invoke negative responses from their clients. But sometimes, clients can be overwhelmed by the negative feelings which can result in intense emotions. To be able to express these emotions in the presence of a caring therapist can by itself result in exceptional healing.
Desired outcomes
It is necessary to note that documented or theoretical evidence of healing resulting from massage therapy is difficult to find. However, there is a lot of clinical experience that there are short term positive results including slowing and deepening of the breath. Although this only lasts for a short period, the client will have given his body enough time to break the emotions and heal (National Institute of Mental Health, 2011).
This psychologically means that the client enters what is known as a parasympathetic state. This state is difficult if not impossible to achieve by his or her own efforts. Her body now has a chance to heal, rejuvenate and relax, which is key to the well being of every person. After the clinical massage therapy, most clients say they feel more relaxed, alert and feel a reduced brain fog. They express amazement over their ability to break free from the imprisoning emotions.
Gently kneading and stroking of the muscles aids the client to successfully move from the hyper-awake state of the mind which one usually uses to respond to the outside world, to the parasympathetic state which boosts the immune system and allows cells to rejuvenate. In this state, the body is at rest.
Apart from incomparable spiritual and personal comfort which results from the soothing of the body, the clients are placed in a mental state that allows to body’s immune system to be mobilized. The essential message that the therapist offers to the client is to completely and unconditionally accept what is. When the mind spends its moment in the current moment, coupled with the feeling of the massage strokes, touching and kneading, it can ground the client and help in regaining balance and homeostasis. There are more long term results that include better immunity, sleep, enhanced concentration, less chronic muscle pain and tension.
The treatment goals of massage therapy are: to promote and increase relaxation, to raise the body’s health, and awareness, reconnect with the present moment in which the massage is taking place, decrease chronic stress response, and to aid the client in reconnecting with the self.
The duration of the treatment can vary as depression can be a long term chronic condition. Massage therapy only gives a temporary relief in most cases. It is akin to treating chronic physical pain. The pain may only be alleviated. Healing the pain is impossible.
There are several symptoms that a depressed person shows. He or she looks tense, strained or held. He or she looks limp, weak, and with almost no animation. The solar plexus may feel discomfort when touched. The temperature of the skin may feel clammy and cold. Tension may be focused of a particular part of the body. This is usually where the subconscious mind directs the pain. Usually, the client will respond with intense pleasure when touched especially at the point where there is pain.
In the short term, the easily identified outcome is a better body awareness of how the client holds his or her tension. This is usually followed with greater relaxation than the client had initially before the therapy. This can last a few hours or days and can alleviate chronic pain. If the therapy is repeated in succession, it can greatly help the client to manage the depression (Ernst and Pittler et al., 2007).
These results strongly support massage therapy as a method of helping clients manage depression. However, it is necessary for therapists to exercise caution. This is because depression is a condition filled with a lot of pathogens. It can be a standalone problem or might be accompanied with a lot of other challenging symptoms. It is necessary for the therapist to understand his or her own limitations. When the client is working with severely depressed clients, it is necessary to involve the help of a trained mental practitioner. Sometimes, the challenges might be too much for the therapist, and the efforts might not produce the intended results. This could lead the therapist to feel discouraged. This could be the best time to call for the help of a trained mental specialist.
Depression is a severe mental illness. It causes a person to feel overwhelmed by situations in life to a point where he or she feels completely incapacitated. Massage therapy is perhaps the only method which reconnects and grounds the patient with reality. Massage therapists should not underestimate depression, nor should we underestimate the potential of massage therapy as a method of helping depressed patients.
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KING’S SPEECH

Stage setting
Stage setting is a task implemented by different parties who work together towards a common goal. A construction manager is the leading figure in while carrying out scene setting activities. Kings speech is a film that incorporates al these elements. The construction manager involved in this film shows expertise and authority directing other staff members working with him. One of his duties is constructing upscale sceneries that are camera friendly. The upscale scenarios in this film are camera friendly thus making the film more appealing. If scene scaling is not done in the right manner, film recording becomes a hard task to undertake. King’s speech is a film that applies all the concepts of scene scaling. In either stage play or film, scene scaling is determined by a number of vital aspects. Setting and scaling scenes should remain relevant to the script. Script content ought to be directly reflected in the final scene setting. This creates a close collaboration between all scenes and the script. Scale construction includes drawings, texture, props and stage elevators.
Some scenes require drawings which aid in translating the script into actual display. Scale construction creates drawing inline with the script flow. This move actualizes the production process by giving it a sense of reality and credibility. When a person watches King’s speech he realizes it has a sense of reality that makes it relevant to all viewers. In either a play or film, some scenes need painting. Painting is mostly done on the background to show emotional sensitivity. This particular film in question has an emotional sense in it. In other instances, stage scaling puts the aspect of texture into consideration. For example, a scene that portrays conflict or disagreement is well portrayed using a rough texture. A scene that shows love or harmony is well portrayed by a smooth texture. Scene texture helps in portraying both actions and moods present in a certain scene. Scene scaling is done in this particular film is done in a professional way. Each scene setting reflects the script content appropriately. Props are important whether in a stage or screen performance. Props are objects that actors use to boost their acting roles while on set. Different scenes require diverse props. Stage setting cannot be complete without providing the right props in accordance with the script. King’s speech is a film that promotes good utilization of props. This is portrayed in the areas it is filmed and how the characters are dressed.
Lighting
Lighting is a craft applicable in both stage performances and on screen productions. This craft serves a number of vital processes. In a film, lighting makes it possible for the audience to see what is happening on each scene clearly. Unless the audience clearly sees what is happening, they cannot fully enjoy or understand the proceedings of a film. In film, lighting is used to brighten dull areas and improve picture quality. The picture quality of King’s speech is extremely high. Lighting is also used to enhance the process of mood setting. Lighting is used to show romance, confusion or danger. Mood setting is a vital aspect in screen productions. It also plays the role of indicating time and location. All the scenes in King’s speech are well managed by the right application of the lighting process.Blue is a color commonly used to show night time. Orange and red are commonly used to show sunset or sunrise. In some cases, lighting is used to direct the audience attention to a certain area. This is done by focusing light on one section and ignoring all the other areas. Lighting is used to enhance scene transition. This facilitates the smooth flow of a film script. King’s speech is a film that has good scene transition due to the good lighting process applied.
Lighting intensity depends on the implements on use. Some lighting equipments have high intensity compared to others. Lighting equipments are fitted with mechanical controls which facilitate their operation. This explains why any production requires a lighting expatriate. Lighting implements are also made in a manner that makes them rotatable. This trait makes it possible to light the stage from all angles. The ability of these equipments to move in different directions makes it possible to change the stage mood at different intervals. The lighting equipments used in King’s speech are of good quality.
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Application to Physician Assistant’s Programme

Becoming a Physicians Assistant has always been a desire of mine since my last year in college. I learned through Biology, Chemistry and other classes that I was fit to work in the medical field. I am a strong and independent women. There have been patients that needed me and I realize that hence I am making application to your Physician Assistant Program.
A beautiful, strong, and independent woman lay before me as I took her medical history. She had just emerged victorious in her second war against breast cancer. Though physically weakened from chemotherapy, she remained resilient and brave. I empathized with her as I listened to the tales of emotional and financial battles she fought throughout the years. Her unwavering spirit and her expression of gratitude and appreciation for those who supported her served as an inspiration to me. Her positive outlook on life motivated me to become a physician assistant because I want to help bring hope and health to patients, just as her medical staff had done for her. Moreover, I am truly inspired to advocate for affordable and accessible healthcare to decrease the financial struggles that many individuals and their families encounter.
College was the time of my self-discovery. I went through the motions of attending college because it was expected of me from my parents. I struggled academically as I continued to feel unsure of myself and with my future. At times I felt overwhelmed from the pressure to succeed coupled with the availability of so many possible career paths. After a while, I realized that I needed to set my own goals and not to fret over what was expected of me. This humbling recognition was the turning point of my college career, where I strengthened myself academically and took the initiative to pursue my future.
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Vietnamese Buddhism

Introduction
Vietnam is country found in South East Asia. It boarders Cambodia and Laos in on the West, South China Sea on the East, and on the South –West its neighbor is Thailand. The total size of Vietnam is three hundred and twenty-nine point five square Kilometers. Old scholarly articles refer to Vietnam as the Indochinese Peninsula. This translates to mean between China and India. The total population of Vietnam is slightly over eight million people. Seven million of them are Buddhists. The Buddhist population in the world currently is almost three hundred million. Scholars compare the total population of Vietnam against the total population of Buddhists in Vietnam while drawing the conclusion that Buddhism is a traditional religion of Vietnam.
Analysis
Buddhism influences the culture of Vietnam in various ways. However, it is important to remember that Buddhism is not an original religion in Vietnam. It is a result of a mixture of intercultural connections and communications over a very long period in the history of the people of Vietnam. The holy books of Buddhism refer to Vietnam as the golden land. They indicate the existence of this land in the region where it is currently. Buddhism and Hinduism entered Vietnam through the sea routes from India and slowly integrated into the Vietnamese culture after several years of enculturation . This was before the CE. Vietnam is religiously divided into two based on religion. The Champa live in the Middle of the country practicing Hindi customs, religion, and art. Their religion is referred to as the Brahmanism. Theravada Buddhists occupy the southern part of the country. Therefore, Buddhism in Vietnam is a mixture of Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism. All the three survived and blended to give a new product Buddhism because they coexisted harmoniously with the traditional culture of the Vietnamese. The cultural structure of Vietnam is similar to that of Japan, China, and Korea. The difference in this case is that Vietnamese Buddhism is different from the rest because of specific conditions surrounding cultural interactions in Vietnam.
Teachings on Liberation and Human suffering
Buddhism started in ancient India as a revolutionary movement rebelling against Brahmanism’s theistic power. This means that although, it teachings are religious; it carries developmental spirit of progress on matters regarding equality as well non-theistic power and authority. Modern society sustains these qualities. The teachings of Buddha inform the followers and those who subscribe to Buddhism that everyone is equal in suffering irrespective of the status and rank in the society. Historians confirm that this ideology came down from traditional Indian religion. Buddha only became revolutionary to show that all people have equal abilities of achieving knowledge and liberation carried it down. Neither any supernatural force nor any god has any powers to carry the routes and alternatives to emancipation. A person decides his or her fate using his or her beliefs and morals. This does not happen instantly but takes time and through stages of human life .
According to the teachings of Lord Gautama Buddha, lust and mortification are the causes of evil and pain growing to uncontrollable levels within people. Buddha based on this to develop the foundations of the teachings of his movement that developed to become a form of religion. The central Buddhist teachings are the Four Noble Truths. The first segment explains to the followers and identifies all types of suffering. The second part outlines that the cause of pain among sentient being is ignorance comprising of lust and pleasure. The third aspect concerns with explaining how realization of cessation from pain by abandonment, non-attachment, and forsaking craving is important. The last segment deals with rights of humanity.
Buddhism in Vietnam
As mentioned earlier, Vietnamese Buddhism is different from the rest in the sense that it is a product of several cultural communication interactions. Historians suspect that Buddhist monks travelling as traders and sailors carried the responsibility of introducing and spreading Buddhism among the people in the land presently referred to as Vietnam. Other scholars document that Indian monks introduced Buddhism Vietnam directly through sea routes several years before doing the same in Southern China. The monks had vast knowledge in the teachings of Buddhism and Buddha. They set up a centre in Giao Chau, from where they coordinated the processes of spreading Buddhism . The article identifies that there is a high probability that from this center Theravada Buddhism was introduced in the modern day Vietnam before the coming of Mahayana Buddhism.
The development of the economy of Vietnam along with its civilization relied on water largely. Economists therefore, refer to it as a water-agriculture civilization. On introduction, this religion integrated into the same traditional culture of water-agriculture civilization. Local beliefs such as the Chu Dong Tu oral narrative provided a good environment for introducing Indian Buddhism in Vietnam. The monks used this intercultural communication to lay the ground for the introduction of Buddhism in peace. People of Vietnam accepted it, internalized, and later indigenized making it part of their culture several years before the introduction Taoism and Confucianism. After several years, the religion became the traditional religion in Vietnam and with it came special recognition among the Vietnamese over Taoism and Confucianism either through heterodox or through orthodox.
The role of Buddhism in creating a system of thought and religion
The Mahayana Buddhism followed a very long way enroot to Vietnam. This fork of religion started in India then spread to China before entering Vietnam by land from China. Mahayana Buddhism came to Vietnam after almost ten centuries after the introduction of the traditional Buddhism. The two types were introduced through different ways. The traditional Buddhism came through enculturation and indigenizing people’s beliefs. However, the second came through the beliefs of the members of the Royal class. Vietnam was under the leadership of Sino when the second type was introduced. Buddhists monks were endowed with the knowledge of Buddhism, Taoism, and Confucianism. The last two were traditional Chinese religions and Buddhism got to China through the two forms of religion.
Teachings of Vietnamese Buddhism During both peace and war times
Buddhism is renowned for its non-violent and no-killing ideology. However, scholars of religion as well as politicians applied it selectively during wartime advocating for patriotism without rigidity. In Vietnam, the life of the nation is bound to the life of Buddhism. Buddhists Vietnamese monks took off their robes to fight form the front for the sake of the nation and Buddhism. They demonstrated leadership in the struggle against violence and evil authority to save Vietnam. The monks swore to burn their temporary bodies as leaders demanding for the freedom of belief provided by existence of Vietnamese Buddhism. Among the monks were Quang Duc, Ngueyen Huong, Dieu Quang, and Thanh Tue among others . Pagoda is a complicated utility space for performing both Buddhist cults and other traditional folk ceremonies and customs during peace times. It gives room to anyone to develop his or her mind either during emergencies or free time. Among other activities followers of Vietnamese Buddhism undertake meditation, worship Maitreya together with their ancestors on the altar. The people of Vietnam have utilized three forms of religion effectively putting Buddhism at the center of everything they do making it get exalted in the society following its achievements.
The value of Buddhism
The following factors make Buddhism more sustainable in Vietnam. Its ethical value relies on every person’s self-consciousness in the internal mind, self-liberation, and self-confidence. This makes it to approach life from humanistic perspectives. These qualities are similar to the essential internal requirements among people, which consist of freedom, personal peace, and confidence. In addition to the politics and economic downturns, religion adds to the constant conflicts in the society today. Religion has failed to fill the vacant space in the internal mind that will help in resolving the bad results of law and court. God is above those who make decisions in the two manmade systems. In conclusion, the paper finds that Buddhism, Taoism, and Confucianism are three systems that develop oriental thought. The thought are accepted and applied harmoniously to establish and affirm the dignity of Vietnam as a nation on the world map. The culture of Vietnam is a product of intercultural communication with India and China.
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Comprehensive final essay

Introduction
Philosophy faces major skepticism in delineating and comprehending the question of being. This is because such inquiries are manned with profoundness, radical and primordial nature other than the desire to establish truth. This means that they are contrasts since being often comes before knowledge, ideas, theories and thoughts. This in essence infers to ontology, which is the phenomenological analysis of being as the basis for epistemology, which refers to theoretical knowing. Heidegger (1962) thus refers to belief and knowledge as primordial being-in-the-world. This is Dasein’s model of knowing. As such, its interpretation should occur beforehand. This is with the rationale that knowing is an essential subsidiary of being. Although our focus in understanding these precepts will be on human beings, it will seek to affirm of their intricate nature, which is difficult though important to comprehend. In belonging to the world, Dasein, the being in this context is null unless it coexists among other things. In explaining the meaning of being-in-the-world in this context, our focus will be underpinned on the rationale that to be humane refers to immersion, embedding and fixing of beings in the tangible, literal and physical world environment for better insight.
Discussion
Being-in-the-world and its understanding in relationship to time
In being-in-the-world, time is a key factor since beings are mortal. Heidegger (1962) explains that time serves as a reminder (‘finitude’) of our awaited biological demise. This supposition is made with the consideration that Dasein possesses finite time-in-the-world to exist and live ontologically and biologically respectively. In explaining the essence of time being-in-the-world as being understood a-priori, Heidegger (1962) distinguishes being from living, biology from ontology, life from existence and perishing from dying. However, his precedence is to understand their differences but not to divorce their interrelationships. His explanation shows Dasein as biologically living and vulnerable to perishing. However, in a hypothesis, if Dasein was a thing then it could not perish. The situation brings in dying as ontical and death as ontological. This explains being-in-to-the-world as a symbol of biology hence the need to understand it with chronologic sensitivity. In expounding on this issue further, Heidegger distinguishes everyday/ontical time from ontological timing. Conversely, Heidegger (1962) explains of an existential approach to describing being-in in terms of time as independent of linear arrangements and irretrievability. This supposition is the basis of explaining being-in-the-world beforehand since ontologically, the present, past and future of Dasein is interrelated. This essentially means that a being’s future is a reflection of his past carried backward and forward. In essence, these possibilities reveal past meanings, which encourage authentic existence while regressing inauthenticity. Time in Heidegger’s opinion is revelation of phenomenological showings of great importance in our being-in-the-world with the potency to interconnect other than individualize the past and future of Dasein. It is thus an expression of unconcealment in the way of being in Dasein since it reveals the potentiality and actuality of the being-in-the-world. Unlike things such as rocks, Dasein as a being has the capacity to unfreeze its being through time authentication. This means understanding our being-in-to-the-world beforehand is a core requisite in enhancing the eternity of time in beings. As the author of time and being, Dasein nurtures authenticity. Relating the being-in with time is the basis for understanding the cause, effect and material conditions that result in to being. This hermeneutical and phenomenological understanding of Dasein opens the pathway to understanding the significance of being-in-the-world with respect to time.
Heidegger (1962) observes that both time and being are inseparable and independent aspects. Lack of time makes the being-in-the-world concept deficient. Lack of being also nullifies time. This means that there is no coordination of the past with the present and even the future. This explains the context of understanding our being-in-the world before bearing in mind that the lack of harmony in our projected future with the present and past makes the life story of beings lack prior to mitigation to inauthentic existence. Heidegger explains this concept clearly describing situations where Dasein always complain of lack of adequate lifetime to fulfill all his anticipations. As such, being-in-the-world must thus undergo time qualification and quantification towards commitment and engagement to the world as well as define the potentiality-for-being. By understanding this concept beforehand, Dasein is able to apprehend its options and potentials (Heidegger, 1962). Evenly time circumvents and encompasses the being’s everydayness from birth-death as well as from death-birth. With its ever-expanding possibility boundary, understanding it a-priori helps in delineating Dasein’s consequentiality, history and intellectual innovations inducing new forms of being-in-the-world that were previously non-existent. Time in this context is the root of understanding the being; as such, its prior to understanding is essential to avoid misconceptions in self-realization of beings.
Meaning of Being-in
Heidegger’s (1962) rationale was that philosophy could establish the meaning of beings definitively. His view was that the world was everywhere, here and now (Steiner, 1978). Furthermore, all beings were all under its influence and immersion hence the term being-in-the-world as one entity. Dasein, his postulated being, existed in inauthenticity and authenticity modes. Without proper understanding of the modes, the two aspects were rendered indistinguishable (Solomon, 1972). This brings in the new rationale that the character of Dasein needs a-priori understanding with the being-in-the-world status. The expression, being-in-the-world according to Heidegger (1962) was a unitary phenomenon whose use was to be on holistic grounds despite its diversified structural components. These included the obligation to examine the world’s ontological structure and delineate its in-the-world-ness. Furthermore, there was need to identify the ‘who’ personality in Dasein’s everyday activities with an ontological basis to understand its being-in.
On focusing on the being-in as the varied manner in which objects occur in one another, Heidegger (1962) introduced categories in explaining being-in as the aspect of being-present-at-hand using several examples. These categorical beings belong to non-human (non-Dasein) like entities. Focusing on the human aspect, being-in occurs as an existential state conditioned by being-in-the-world. This means that existential identity ideas are wedded with those of the world. The solid nature of these arguments induce facticity to call together the world and Dasein as different but related aspects. Heidegger (1962) references the term concern to depict the being as existential ontologically in the aspect of being-in-the-world knowing that Dasein possessed the virtue of care. In this case, concern was the chronological meaning of being-in-the-world and inherently belonged to Dasein as a fundamental apprehension. This brings in the aspect of time. The existence of time is the reason behind human implication and engagement in human ways during their everydayness. With these temporality logics, human relate with the world with a concern approach. With concern, human optimize on the best options with the possibility to bring affirmative change. This is with the consideration that available options have limitations and each human being does not have the capacity to do everything. The uniqueness in every individual is what diversifies their possibilities making their orientations of inauthentic or of authentic existence (Warnock, 1970). The former occurs once society precedence prejudiced beliefs and standards encouraging social stereotypes. The latter on the other hand, occurs once human beings realize their selves and appreciate the distinctive entity in each one of them. With such orientations, human concern is not mass-oriented but focuses on becoming authentic to realize full potential towards their destinies in the world. According to Heidegger, these fundamentals nurture solid comprehension of Dasein towards streamlining the everyday view and purpose of being-in-the-world.
The Concept of Knowing in Understanding Being-in-the-world
The numerous and trite nature of in common realities on existence often hinder the realization of the turning point to being-in-the-world. This is an explicit show of misconceptions on reality hence poor realization of the Dasein being or self. With knowing being interpreted in a superficial manner, the situation is set to grow worse. In particular, understanding the knowing concept uses the subject-object relationship, a hang out that lacks truth and is empty. This is with the rationale that the world and Dasein cannot be related in a subject-object correlation. Heidegger (1962) observed it tasking to delineate the phenomenological features of a being with knowledge about the world. Knowing is thus an internal feature possessed by humans as inherent entities. The perception of knowing thus becomes a concern and a tangible form of being-in-the-world. As such, the action of forgetting often describes the primordial being-in. This is with the logic that knowledge did not play part in creating or destroying it hence, Dasein only becomes knowledgeable once it understands reality. Being-in-the-world is thus a result of thrownness with the action being that Dasein is a thrown being-in-the-world (Solomon, 1972). These philosophical terms accentuate the action of delivering humans over to earth following their creative existence.
Biology thus cannot answer questions regarding the time when human beings began to exist. Conversely, it cannot predict when such beings will become extinct or cease to exist excepts with our constructions on the end of life as death. This reasoning according to Heidegger (1962) is a dual-fold anonymity that depicts the thrown being, which is the basis of human life as tangible and absolute. In explaining the being-in-the-world expression, the being (Dasein) was delivered over in an all-encompassing thereness. As such, beings tend to occupy the aforementioned thereness, which constitutes their existence. ‘Thereness’ in this case, describes the place where they were thrown (Steiner, 1978). In this world, Dasein does not exist alone. This means that his being-there is a fact (describing facticity) but does not hinder the existence of other beings, an aspect that is inevitable. Therefore, to be a complete being, Dasein must understand his/her fellow beings-in-the-world as well as have an ontological association with them. This supposition helps us understand the concept of being-in-the-world from the being-with approach hence an indispensible presentness with and of others for a real existence. Being-with must be understood with caution to prevent misunderstanding of Dasein as being-with-one-another all the time. This would mean than human beings only exist on referencing others. This would make beings lose the self in them by lacking autonomy and yielding their existence to alterity and a formless situation reverencing the ‘theyness’.
Authentic and Inauthentic Being-in-the-world
In understanding the being-in-the-world concept, Heidegger explains the concept of belonging to others to develop distinct clarity of the two expressions. Belonging-to-other is a radical irresponsibility that robs off Dasein its judgment and decision-making responsibility and accountability (Dreyfus, 1991). In such a context, the ‘they’ would be used in propagating the blame game shift. Such passivity also enhances an alienated self whose moral independence is disburdened as a fatality. In such a context, beings do not possess ethical guilt hence lack a sense of moral responsibility. This situation is opposite of a Dasein who has known itself and collectively is the ‘they-self’. Understanding these two situations is the difference between an inauthentic and an authentic existence of human beings-in-the-world.
Inauthentic human existence refers to a Dasein living in the ‘they’ other than the ‘self’ context. Heidegger (1962) observes that such situations hardly exist and once they do, they are full of fear. Such fear is not analogous to anxiety. In the latter, the situation at hand does not play part in inducing anxiety while in the former; the situation in question is useful, relevant and prompts a life-threat. Warnock (1970) explains the two: fear and anxiety in relationship to being-in-the-world claiming that anxiety unlike fear is a drive to the self-swamp of the non-significance and is a characteristic of inauthentic existence. Steiner (1978) also expounds on similar arguments depicting fear as a trite and shared reaction while anxiety is the aspect that induces problems and a subsequent questioning on our worth being-in-the-world. Steiner (1978) adds that with anxiety, authenticity becomes real since it repudiates the ‘theyness’. As such, anxiety could serve as instrumental in developing ontic character contextually rendering the daily activities of beings inescapable and ontologically pressuring.
Heidegger thus to a greater degree concurs with Steiner (1978) on the aspect of being-in-the-world anxiously. In his sentiments, being is a derivative of Dasein’s ontological structure. It is thus important to comprehend the being’s mind state to disclose itself. In attempting to simplify the being with structural totality, Heidegger (1962) used the mind state, which is anxiety to hypothesize that requirement satisfaction was feasible. He took departure as his beginning point and upheld anxiety as the pathway to gaining the being in totality. In this case, a new concept on being-in-the-world as possessing language is evident. Steiner (1978) also agrees with Heidegger’s characteristic of being-in-the-world discerning Dasein’s speech (‘rede’) from talk (‘gerede’). The latter in this context lacks the being concept and is the source of illusions, empty gossip and idle talk with no real understanding of situations. He adds that Dasein in coexisting with other beings uses bogus interactions with no cognition to refer to talk. Inauthentic and authentic existence of beings-in-the-world also is an agent of speech and talk in opposing positions. This is with the rationale that the opposing conditions are of disparate categories and have the ultimate goal of effecting the antithesis between the ‘theyness’ (lack of self-perception in the being) and the true self in Dasein (the being’s self-perception knowingly). The former state according to Heidegger resulted from a fall (‘verfall’) with the fallen state (‘verfallensein’) being distanced from a moral value verdict or a sinful nature of such beings. This means that being-in-the-world; human beings often find themselves in inauthentic and authentic states owing to their being.
In understanding being-in-the-world, states of fallenness and inauthenticity are not coincidences, errors or mishaps. Instead, they are integral components of a Dasein-in-the-world and a Dasein-with, considering the aforementioned throwing concept. Consenting to mundane existence thus is existentially inevitable. As such, Dasein must at one time be in inauthenticity, theyness as well as engage in talk to recognize a self-loss and strive to mitigate the situation by reversing to authenticity (Heidegger, 1962). Similarly, Steiner (1978) attests that the ‘verfall’ is an imperative requirement in nurturing a true Dasein with a repossessed self.
Search for Authenticity in Being-in-the-world Using Care
Dasein often puts effort to discover authenticity in inauthentic states of being-in-the-world (Dreyfus, 1991). This is with the rationale that the everyday fallingness serves to nurture authenticity. Heidegger in this case highlights that authenticity can only grow from inauthenticity if care (sorge) becomes an integral part of everydayness. With care, the transitions from falling out of the self then to a situation of emptiness and busyness and finally, a desire to an uncanny sense to regaining self is possible. Steiner (1978) also shares similar sentiments claiming that without care, shattered familiarity and homeless becomes the nature in inauthentic beings. The uncaring gap that Dasein holds in inauthenticity serves as the transforming dilemma to prefer self-possession to inauthenticity. With the transcendence of care, the concern for the obscurity and presentness of being self for Dasein grows hence the transformation to authenticity. Evenly, the concern for others also grows on discovering one’s self. Sorge (care) is the marker of Dasein’s existence since it makes being-in-the-world meaningful. As a pretext to being authentic, human beings must be careful.
Care also is the key drive to self-actualization opportunities for Dasein in approaching its fervent demand for liberty to death. With this freedom, Dasein can discern the ‘they’ with greater accuracy and certainty of self. This brings in the concept of a temporal Dasein whose being-in-the-world is a being-towards-death or with the capacity to end. Death is thus a possibility of no-longer-being-able-to-be-there hence challenges human beings to be their ownmost when living. This is only realistic when such beings discover their selves optimally. Dreyfus (1991) accentuates that this understanding of Dasein’s being-in-the-world is the insight and basis for both epistemology and ontology. These suppositions have their platform in the rationale that humans being exist in the world owing to particular circumstance other than through a direct force.
Conclusion
Understanding the being-in-the-world concept is intricate unless on sub-dividing it to sub-components to understand aspects such as being-in, being-with, concern, care and facticity. This analysis on being-in-the-world in relationship with time in this case, helps in explaining Dasein as a being, his significance and existence. However, there is considerable ambiguity in the propriety aspect of time towards understanding the being-in. Of great importance in this analysis is an understanding of being-in-the-world using the authentic and inauthentic approaches. With authenticity, aspects of care, concern and speech characterize the being-in-the-world for Dasein while inauthenticity propagates fear, talk and poor self-realization. Understanding Dasein thus requires the authentic approach since concern for self is precedence and follows the concern for others considering that humans are beings-with. This analysis challenges human beings to rethink of their everydayness and the associated ontological interests to understand the self-better. This precept occurs owing to the conclusion that human beings barely know of their self and to aggravate the situation are not even aware of this deficiency. As such, they must seek to understand their being-in-the-world to understand their selves.

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Online Piracy

Impossible! Impossible! Impossible! In the current world where technology is the norm rather than an exception, it is impossible for an individual to own their artistic work. All that an individual has produced, done, or shared online with other internet users can easily be retrieved and downloaded with a lot of ease. Every work of art, for example movies, music, or even articles can be downloaded and be owned by other individuals almost three quarters of all the bandwidth (Lee 2008).
When an artist gets into the studio, records his music, gets it produced and sold in the music stores and on the internet, the question that such an artist should ask themselves is whether they will remain the owner of such artistic work or their work is immediately owned by other individuals. In addition, most of these individuals want to benefit freely from the musician’s hard work and sweat. It is worth noting that when an artist uploads the contents of his work on the internet, it is paramount that such an artist ensures that the safety of his artistic work is guaranteed. It is common knowledge that downloading and selling work online is not a difficult task. The executives of showbiz and legislators have cited the report produced under the financial help of NBCuniversal as good concrete evidence that demonstrates that despite the heightened enforcement and other stringent measures that have been put in place, there still exists a worsening trend of piracy.
With the increased video streaming and peer-to-peer sites like Bit Torrent, the consumption of piracy has increased. The buying and selling of the information online is also possible. It must be mentioned that online piracy has devised the ways of reacting to the government closures and seizures as they can morph to the altered circumstances.
In the current modern world, which is characterized by advanced technology, the internet has to a larger extent breached the elements of artistic ownership. Quite a large number of the individual artists use the internet at all times providing their artistic work and critical information concerning such work for a myriad of reasons. Such information on their work is uploaded and can be accessed from certain sites of internet. Given the fact that most of this World Wide Web pages are accessed free of charge, it encourages majority of individuals and pirates to download the music, movies, and even articles and find their way to the market. The person who benefit is a pirate instead of such work accruing benefits to the individual owner who originally developed the content.
It must be mentioned that the administrators of entertainment websites for various reasons on request offer personal information of the individual artists whose work has already been uploaded to the direct download cyber lockers who freely download such contents for their own personal use and in their quest to get an un-fair financial advantage. It has been noted that movie and music companies and other entertainment spots are the major users of such contents. They inquire for artists information in order to target the latest movies and music from such individuals so that they are able to please their clients in providing for their entertainment needs on a timely basis as well as keeping them updated up to the latest productions on the entertainment scene (Lee 2008).
The artists, movie actors and the writers are embroiled on constant conflicts. Debates have ensued regarding whose responsibility it is to safeguard their uploaded work. Most stakeholders argue that the government should put in place proper legislations to protect the individual works of artists, movie stars, and writers. They have advanced their thoughts that the government should protect such individuals to benefit from their works through mechanisms like the intrusion detection, authentication, protective mechanisms, and encryption. It must be mentioned that however the government lays efforts towards attaining internet security, the most reliable method that will guarantee a reduction in internet piracy will be the responsibility of the individual artists and not necessarily the government, but still the government has a role to play (Adrian 2009).
In the current modern world, internet piracy has become a major point of discussion. There is increased fear that the internet cannot be totally secure. The trend has been worrying to a large extent that most people have fallen victims and lost major investments. An example is a case of novelists, who had their work hacked into, downloaded, and sold cheaply without any help. Musicians have also produced audio records and even before they could launch their songs, they get surprised to find them sold on the market both audio and video. On the entertainment sites, the work of individual artists, musicians, and movie stars have been traded without their knowledge. The reasons for the piracy escalation have partly been contributed by the fact that internet piracy has been characterized by conflicting and varying interest, within those tasked with the responsibility to protect such work.
The individuals and companies on the entertainment scene are faced with a dilemma. This is because, signing up to work online requires that an individual gives the company all the individual personal information, on the other hand, the worrying and troubled individuals are careful not to divulge so much information that will work against them and lead to losses from online theft. The fear stems from the increased number of cyber criminals who hack into the company websites that store key information and go ahead to use such information to get an unfair financial gain.
The internet is far from being safe in the modern world today. This is demonstrated by the huge information that is posted all over the servers and accessed by millions of individuals, who otherwise do not have anything to do with such information. There is, therefore, an urgent need to call for the security of the internet and the information that can be accessed online through downloading. One major way of guaranteeing the internet security and reduced piracy is by having the individual artists upload incomplete work, with only key excerpts of their work and remain with the major content of work only to distribute to those who will subscribe. Secondly, the young and the upcoming artists should be sensitized that in their quest to advertise themselves and create a support base, they should not divulge all their work but trade carefully.
The government is also well aware that piracy is hard to crack. This is contributed by the fact that the villains perpetrate their illegal businesses from countries that are far away. The bad apples have proved difficult to be pinned down. In a sea of websites, smart pirates are in a position to evade any measures put against them like tweaking the Website name (Lee 2008).
The government, therefore, should clearly define categories of websites and crack their whip on the infringing websites. These are those websites without any significant purpose other than engaging in facilitating and enabling the distribution of illegally copyrighted materials in their entire forms (Lee 2008).
The government should try to bring the offenders to face justice. In circumstances that the offender cannot be found to defend themselves to the allegations, then the government can obtain an injunction order, in order to compel the paying companies and networks like PayPal and MasterCard to avoid carrying any business with the site (Lee 2008).
In the modern world today, most of the organizations and entertainment spots that entertain their audiences using the artistic work downloaded from the internet, do not allow for individual control on the information that the company has collected concerning them. One of the advanced solutions to enhancing security on internet piracy is that of choice. All the concerned individuals need to be given an option of choosing whether they want their work distributed and shared with any other interested party. If the individual musicians, moviemakers, and artists are willing to share information on the internet, then such individuals should be given the option of deciding with whom to share their work. This will greatly reduce the number of complaints to the government from the individuals affected and other members of the online community regarding the internet security. If the users are issued with the right choice, then there are no piracy issues likely to arise.
Prompt notifications also aid in ensuring that the safety of individual works of the concerned artists is guaranteed. These individuals ought to be issued with information on how the work of their own individual creativity is being shared. This will aid them in choosing whether to agree in sharing their information and whether such information can be used in carrying out the intended work (Adrian 2009).
One major issue that has cropped up in line with the online piracy is the issue of compensation. It is morally wrong for a single individual to make use of other individual hard work and creativity to accrue all the benefits. The companies that make use of personal work need to compensate them. Compliance between the entertainment spots and the individual artists should be ensured. This can be attained by putting in place reform measures and observing their implementation, which will allow for an amicable resolution in case of any dispute (Adrian 2009).
Research has proved that the major concern of musicians and artists is internet piracy. This means that the government is directly affected. This calls for the government to put in place legislation that will secure these individuals and ensure that they are fully benefitting from them. It must be noted that the government regulations though not as effective as compared to the individual regulation, will seal some of the loopholes of concerns in terms of the individual work protection against internet piracy (Adrian 2009).
It must be mentioned that the government regulation despite sealing online piracy loopholes, has its drawbacks. Some of the consequences of government regulation will be a negative impact on internet advertising, which will trickle down to reduced e-commerce activities.
In conclusion, it has been noted that in order to ensure internet safety, the three major steps will be ensuring that individual work of artists has been licensed and have a disciplined internet behavior like not divulging all the work content, The government can as well put in place effective legislation to protect individual artists, movie makers and writers. Finally, given the increased use of internet in the current modern world, internet security should be guaranteed.

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February 6, 2014

Old Hand or New Blood?

The principle of leadership
– Every company that has a vision of realizing profit growth in future needs a great leader. A great leader is the one who is able to learn from the past, looks into the future as well as planning for the same.
– Through the effective leaders, new strategies should be identified to replace the out-dated ones. For instance, the traditional products and services should be replaced with new ones to meet the current needs of customers
– The firm’s sales team should be adequately compensated and rewarded to motivate them to coordinate their efforts.
– The fusilier should re-examine the recruitment and training system of the sales team. The training should help the sales persons understand, promote, and select services and products offered by the company and its partner.
– The employees from the product and service unit should be taught their specific role in the company.
– The firm’s key positions should be held by individuals who have more experience and academic qualifications. Besides that, it should be someone who is well informed about the products and services offered by the company. In this case, a candidate who has made difference in closing various deals, self-effacing, and modest should hold the position of executive recruiter; he or she should be someone who can make tough decisions concerning the company. He/she should be both a good administrator and a strategist
– The firm should not only strategize on improving their sales but also on how they can outperform their competitors by meeting all the requirements of the customers in the market.
– The firm should segment and target the right customers for their products and services in order to reduce the SG&A cost.
(more…)

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The Mystery Behind UAE’S Fast Construction Developments

The UAE’s construction industry represents a rich area of research with respect to both the prospects and challenges facing the construction industry in the Middle East and the world. With the construction boom being witnessed in the UAE, the construction sector continues to hold promising returns for the UAE government, investors and job seekers. Following the relentless drive to reduce dependency on oil revenues, UAE authorities saw a healthy construction industry as a key driver of sustained economic growth (Low, 2012, p. 62). While Abu Dhabi remained comparatively conservative with respect to its attitude, Dubai, whose oil reserves are relatively smaller, adopted a much bolder diversification policy.
Dubai’s revolutionary land reclamation projects, which include the Palm Islands, represent the epitome of UAE’s construction industry (Legrenzi & Momani, 2011, p. 39). UAE’s construction industry has witnessed rapid growth in the recent past. Analysts estimated the UAE’s construction industry to be worth $39.5 billion as of 2012, and this figure is expected to grow at a mean rate of approximately 9.5 percent between the years 2012 and 2016 (Held & Ulrichsen, 2012, p. 66). This projected boom in the construction industry is buoyed by several factors including UAE’s anticipated growth in the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), the substantial investments in essential pipeline construction project, friendly construction tender price levels, the ability of the UAE economy to raise debt funding and prosperous support industries such as hospitality and tourism.
The significance of the construction industry in the UAE is observable from the country’s project value in relation to its GDP (Calhoun & Derluguian, 2011, p. 27). Due to the heavy construction that is currently going on in the UAE, there are roughly 30,000 construction cranes in Dubai alone, which represents a whopping twenty-five percent of the total cranes operating globally (Olimat, 2013, p. 166). Nevertheless, the economy of UAE also continues to experience several setbacks. The UAE has been facing stiff competition from a raft of developed nations. While UAE’s investments continue to grow, escalating world oil prices have proved a key impediment, notwithstanding the high levels of per capita income. With this blend of setbacks and opportunities, the construction industry in the UAE provides an interesting area of research.
The UAE has been striving to reduce the reliance on oil exports through the diversification of its economy (Davidson, 2009, p. 112). UAE has invested significantly in the construction industry that attracted a huge influx of foreign workforce, primarily from India. According to Afram and the World Bank (2012, p, 8), an unstable currency market together with global and regional competition are making the process of sourcing workers extremely hard in the UAE.
Significance
The escalating property value is making it difficult for the middle class to live in the UAE. The prices of essential commodities have increased significantly over the past years because of increased tourism and glamorous lifestyles (Calhoun & Derluguian, 2011, p. 31). Despite the fact that the government has employed this method as a strategy to safeguard UAE’s wealth long after the oil wells dry up, the locals continue to suffer. However, the economy seems to provide positive prospect for both foreigners and the people of UAE going forward.
The rising number of foreign investors has also been a significant setback. This is because even though they invest in the UAE, they repatriate the bulk of the benefits to their home countries. The chief causes of these setbacks have been technological, cultural and political diversity (Keddie, 2007, p. 44). Policy formulation and legislative processes have led to most of the problems faced by the country’s development activities. The place of construction in the economy must be put into perspective, to facilitate a lucid understanding of its function.
Project Focus and Working Thesis
This research examines both the negative and positive effect of the construction boom on the economy of UAE. The research will use data on the construction output and the GDP. It attempts to investigate the link between the aggregate economy and the construction sector.
Background
The primary force behind UAE’s formation was Abu Dhabi’s ruler the late Sheikh Zayed, who was also the first president of the Emirates. He held this post for thirty years between 1971 and 2004. The UAE consist of seven monarchies, and it largely experiences a hot and dry weather condition. As of 2012, the UAE had a population of about 9.206 million (Rubin, 2012, p. 28). Its population growth is ranked among the highest globally, mostly because of immigration. The national and official language of the country is Arabic, with the Emirati people speaking the Gulf dialect. Muslims make up about fifty-five percent of the foreign population, with Hindus constituting twenty-five percent, Christians making up ten percent and Buddhists making up five percent. Geographically, the UAE is located in Southwest Asia and covers an area of 83,600 square kilometres (Rubin, 2012, p, 31). The UAE is home to the seventh largest reserves of natural gas and crude oil in the world. Since gaining independence in 1971, the UAE has continued to rely on its vast deposits of hydrocarbon in supporting its economy. However, increased efforts over the past few decades have altered this scenario.
The economy of the UAE largely depended on fishing and a moribund pearl industry before the discovery of oil in the 1950s (Ehteshami, 2013, p. 77). This situation changed after 1962 when Abu Dhabi begun exporting oil. The late Sheikh Zayed, who was Abu Dhabi’s ruler and the UAE’s president at the time of its inception, quickly seized the opportunity and took advantage of the potential that the oil industry promised (Low, 2012, p. 60). Sheikh Zayed directed the development of the UAE and channeled the revenues from oil export into education, healthcare and the development of national infrastructure. While the oil industry acted as the backbone of the UAE economy, it gave rise to a booming construction industry that attracted a huge influx of foreign workforce. Petroleum related industries are still essential to UAE’s economy (Ehteshami, 2013, p. 77). However, the country has made positive steps in diversifying its economy, which now also relies on financial services, tourism, a booming construction sector, international banking and regional corporate headquarters.
Presently, foreign workforce constitutes more than seventy-five percent of the population. However, the UAE has been striving to reduce the reliance on oil exports through the diversification of its economy (Davidson, 2009, p. 112). This has led to the establishment of booming tourism, business and the construction industry. While the UAE continues to make remarkable progress in diversifying and transforming its economy through trade, manufacturing, tourism and construction, the petroleum industry will continue to account for most of the economic activity.
Research Problem
The main problem is that, while the construction industry in the UAE offers positive prospects for the economy of the Gulf region and indeed the entire Middle East, it also faces substantial challenges and setbacks that need to be considered. It is feared that the double-digit level of growth experienced during the construction boom will never be witnessed again. As a result, many players in the construction industry are beginning to look abroad (Gorgenländer, 2011, p. 62). During the past few years, Asian countries, particularly India, have witnessed brisk economic growth, higher wages and improved career prospects. Wages in India grew at about fourteen percent in 2007 compared to an increase of about 10.7 percent in the UAE during the same period (Olimat, 2013, p. 17). For the UAE, this represented a marginal rise from a figure of about 10.3 percent in 2006. In essence, the wage gap between the Gulf and Asian countries is reducing. However, the diminishing value of the dirham against other currencies such as the dollar and the rupee has continued to compound the situation. In addition, regional and global competition has also made it hard for construction firms in the UAE to find workers. The rich blend of opportunities and numerous setbacks and challenges for the UAE construction industry presents a deep area of study, which forms the core of this research.
Even though the diminishing value of the dirham mostly affects workers from Asian countries, it is also having an effect on expatriates from Australia, Canada, Europe, and South Africa. Labor costs, account for between fifteen and twenty percent of construction related costs, went up during the period between 2008 and 2009 (Low, 2012, p. 73). Labor shortage represents a probable capacity constraint compared to financial shortages. Shortage of appropriate staff may hinder the ability of a contractor to undertake new projects and accomplish extensive expansion plans. Another key factor that is affecting the construction industry is the cement and steel prices. These two account for approximately thirty percent of the net construction costs. The escalating prices are putting the margins of the contractors under increasing pressure. The UAE manufactures its own cement and has fifteen cement companies with a combined output of 13.2 million tons per year (Low, 2012, p. 80). Nonetheless, increased demand has surpassed this production following the construction boom that has been witnessed since 2003.
While the UAE imports some of the cement to bridge the gap between the demand and supply, the prices have soared up from Dh150 for every metric ton in 2003 to approximately Dh300 per metric ton as at 2012 (Edwards, 2012, p. 1). This price, however, has reduced compared to the Dh420 that manufacturers charged per metric ton during the construction boom. Presently, several construction projects are facing delays. Analysts anticipate this number to decline as the government takes measures to address these bottlenecks. Purchasing off plans has proved a popular practice in the region. Negative interest rates coupled with high liquidity has reduced lending rates and increased off plan investments in real estate (Gorgenländer, 2011, p. 63). Nonetheless, the escalating costs of construction mean that planned developments that were initiated in the market, in the past two or three years, are no longer lucrative to develop.
Research Solution
The obvious strategy for countering currency fluctuations is to institute far-reaching monetary policies. While some solutions to some of UAE’s problems are straightforward and the government has strove to make amendments, some appear to be intricate and out of the government’s control. This strategy must start by adjusting the depreciating currency value through the adjustment of monetary policies. However, this might be a temporary reprieve as this is largely determined by market forces (MacDonald & Al Faris, 2010, p. 51). The UAE can only continue to develop its flourishing industries such as tourism, trade and the construction industry. This will not only enable the country to achieve complete independence from oil revenues, but it will also assist it in stabilizing the economy. A balanced workforce is also essential to a healthy economy of the UAE (AlSadik & Elbadawi, 2012, p. 57).
With respect to the high and fluctuating cement and steel prices, the best solution is for the UAE government to make agreements with steel and cement manufacturers that will cap the prices at a certain ceiling and make them more stable (World Bank, 2007, p. 21). However, even in the absence of government intervention, the construction companies may adopt purchasing policies that provide them with timely and accurate costs, including undertaking a cost analysis forecast over a certain period. In this manner, the construction companies will be able to gain an in-depth understanding of the supplier’s cost structures together with the market dynamics.
The above approach will offer the construction firms several benefits including a better position to evaluate price quotes and come up with composite cost indexes. They will also be able to identify viable suppliers, time their purchases strategically, and most importantly, accurately determine the project risks, validity, and long-term costs. Adjusting the monetary policies will help the country deal with the discrepancy in the wage gap that is made compound by fluctuating exchange rates. Conversely, harmonizing steel and cement prices will help in cushioning the construction firms and the construction industry as a whole from the effects of fluctuating prices.
(more…)

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The British Civil War

Bloody civil wars began in England between 1642 and 1646 due to conflicting supports of the king and the parliament. The Royalists supported King Charles I while the parliamentarians supported the privileges and the rights of the parliament. Each of the partisans started nicknaming their opponents without knowing the dangers they were getting into. The parliamentarians nicknamed the Royalists ‘Cavaliers’ which they had derived from “Caballeros”, a Spanish word. This word was meant to refer to them as armed horsemen or troopers. This shows how they viewed the Royalists as people who had foreign influence and could start acts of violence at any time. On the other hand, the Royalists nicknamed the parliamentarians “Roundheads” (Stoyle 15). This word referred to the London apprentices who shaved their heads and demonstrated their devoted support for the Parliamentarians. This portrayed them as inelegant in appearance and those who had poor mental judgements in their work. These two rebels influenced how men and women chose sides in that war though their considerations were way beyond the two rebellions. The antagonism prevailed during the war where the Royalists believed had huge financial capital compared to the parliamentarians. The devoted Royalists donated thousands of Euros to make sure they have emerged winners. The parliamentarians resulted to the selling of the land since they had not paid their soldiers. This antagonism shows the reasons that motivated them to go to war. Each of the groups had followers in England who supported them. Therefore, they influenced these supporters to start conflicts with each other (Stoyle 16).
The personality and policies of the king influenced taking sides during the war. King Charles I was a great ruler who was desired by many, but his ambitions to rule England failed him. He wanted to eliminate the parliament as part of the governing system in his rule. He had financial measures which were considered selfish and devoted a lot of support to the Catholic Church “the high church” (Hughes 238). The people interpreted that his intentions were meant to restore England under Catholic rule and deprive them of their civil rights. He faced a major rebellion in the northern kingdom of Scotland when he attempted to changed ways of praying through the introduction of new prayer books. The Scots succeeded in rebelling him since he was incapable of financing an army to face them. He summoned the parliament to finance him but instead they presented their grievances. They later took over political control claiming that he ruled England according to his personal interests. All his instruments of power were abolished making him flee. This fueled and tore the nation apart since the parliamentarian’s success angered their opponents. There were also many groups which felt that the previous reforms had gone so far and changing the governments would not solve political issues appropriately. This definitely led to the rebellion which opposed the parliamentarians and their supporters what resulted in the conflicts (Hughes 238-48).
The King’s support for the catholic religions was also leading to the religions’ antagonism. The protestant rebelled since they thought they were being taken back to the ‘old impure religion which never satisfied their spiritual matter and met obligations in a clean church’ (Gentle 413). They believed that the Church of England was not fully reformed, and their major objective was to get rid of Rome’s rags and patches. On the other hand, other religious conservative felt that this church’s doctrine had no flaws and satisfied them from the time it was established during the reformation. This led to “religion fears”. “Fear by the Scots that the king aimed to extirpate Presbyterian worship and church government” (Gentle 413). The catholic also felt that the parliament would only be contented only when they saw that all the Catholics were dead. Most of the religious conservative did not wish to go to the war, but their resistance influenced them. The Anglicans also feared that it would also abolish its prayer book. The only common fear that mounted on the churches was the popish religion would be introduced in England if the parliament continued to rule. These religious alienations made religious traditionalists support King Charles I who came to reclaim his throne. This was considered outrageous by the public leading to endless uproars in London that facilitated the emergence of rivalry across the country. During the war, some of the generals believed that they executed the interest of the almighty on earth (Gentle 415).
The above three articles clearly indicate that the civil war was fueled by different things. The war started from the antagonism between the Royalists and the parliamentarians. Each of them had different values and opinion in the relations of the governing system. This is shown in the first article and seconded by the second article. The personalities and policies that King Charles I implemented caused conflicts and rebellion in England. Some of the policies led to religions opposing each other. On the other hand, the “religious fear” that prevailed among the churches due to the parliament being in power was another factor that led to instability. It is clearly shown by the third article how the spiritual matters affected the war when some of the general believed that they executed the will of God.

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A Critical Analysis of “The Cask of Amontillado” by Edgar Allen Poe

The Cask of Amontillado was written by Edgar Allan Poe in 1846 and has risen to become one of the most significant irony tales in American Literature. In the story, Montressor seems to be out for revenge and the gothic story by the writer may make the leader to believe that Montressor is calculating and in some cases even diabolical. Montressor seems to have the sole concern of vengeance with impunity but the irony is that Montressor never indicates why Fortunato deserves to be punished. The story continues to indicate that the only clue that Montressor attributes his vengeance is that Fortunato caused him significant injuries. Montressor then plans to bury Fortunato alive. Fortunato becomes like sacrificial lamb being taken for slaughter without knowing. Montressor smiles in the face of Fortunato, his victim as he carries out each specific detail. The thought of Furtado’s immolation does not make Montressor smile because of the viciousness it is associated with. Montressor smiles because he believes that the Sacrifice of Fortunato will bring him great rewards.Forunato thereby symbolically becomes despised self in Montressor unconsciousness and merely the mirror self of Montressor.
It is important to note that the psychological picture of repression is brought about by the desire of Montressor to bury Fortunato alive. This also shows the evil nature of Montressor. It may be indicated that salvation is the reward for repression Irony can be used in literature in both the verbal and dramatic ways and the story as written by Poe makes use of both the forms. The story exemplifies different levels of irony and the author weaves the story with a view of having perfect control of the narrative and at the same Time allowing the reader some significant freedom in their own interpretation.
In the story, the Cast of Amontillado, the author, Edgar Allan Poe uses irony to bring out the theme of a person who uses repression to seek salvation. Montressor successfully uses his actions to ward off any resistance from Fortunato and it is quite ironical that Fortunato does not even seek to rebel against domination. The character names used by Poe ironically have parallel meanings for example to suggest that Montressor and Fortunato were different aspects of one personality. This means that they occupied the same body but had different perceptions and personality. Fortunato’s name seemed to portray that he should be a fortunate one. Therefore the manner in which he turns out to be unlucky is a matter of irony. The name reveals the motive by Montressor reading repression. Fortunato is pun for fortune and as such the Fortunato side of Montressor was symbolic of fortune. However it is ironic also that the desire by Montressor to repress Fortunato came about as a result of torture and fortune.
It is important to note that if we were to consider the space that the love of money is the root to evil, then possessing a fortune would plunge humanity into destruction and ruin. Montresor’s fortunate side seeks to be wealthy and desires it. This wealth acquired by Fortunato makes him widely respected and feared Fortunato causes Montressor a significant number of injuries by acquiring wealth. Despite this, when Fortunato’s wealth is feared by others, he begins insulting God. As such, Montressor requires repression of Fortunato as a defense mechanism. His action of burying Fortunato alive represses his personality that insults God. Ironically Fortunato was a name that translated to the fated or lucky in and suffered a hardly lucky fate.
If closely analyzed form the above perspective, Montresor’s name exemplifies a parallel to Fortunato’s in a number of ways. The first one is that in French, Montessori was a combination of the words Monterrey and sort meaning to show and fate respectively. Therefore his name suggests that he shows Fortunato his faith. Fortunato is not able to understand the gravity of the situation and is caught unawares. Strangely and ironically Fortunato receives no word in reference to a threat regarding his fate. Fortunato is not worried by Montressor because this would have been suppression and therefore by not showing Fortunato what he could have gone through, Montressor demonstrates that the live burial of Fortunato is a repressive act. The direct French derivative of Montresor’s name parallels Fortunato’s name as well. The writer demonstrates that Montressor is Fortunato’s mirror image. Montressor finally believe himself to be worthy of the salvation treasure.
Just to mention that Fortunato’s mode of dress is also ironically symbolic of a victim intended for sacrifice and suggests that Montressor seeks salvation. For a man of Fortunato’s stature, his dress is quite ironical. He is a rich, admired and respected person (Poe 35). Despite this he is in a tight fitting party stripped dress. His head is surmounted by the conical caps and bells during the carnival season. The cap represents Satan’s role as the prince of fools instead of the crone of horns. Ehen Fortunato is repressed by Montressor; he tries to bring out his psyche and stature that relishes power and stature. Montresor’s soul is made foolish and impoverished by Fortunato. The irony is that this story is quite similar in principle to the biblical story of Jesus whereas through the sacrifices of Christ do Christians receive salvation, Montressor seeks salivation through Fortunato’s sacrifice.
It is also important to note that Montressor dresses more like a priest and less like the carnival season. The black roquelaire worn by Montressor symbolizes the black cape worn during funerals. This doe of dress is indicative of t intention by Montressor to bury Fortunato. This is quite ironic as compared to a Jewish tries where Montressor buries Fortunato alive “without giving him a chance for confession. Ironically Montressor served as a priest for the Burial of Fortunato and as such believes that Montresor’s repression must have had a holy sanction and even with Fortunato’s repressions, Montressor only seeks to wear the holy garb of salvation.
In conclusion, , Edgar Allan Poe uses irony to bring out the theme of a person who uses repression to seek salvation The carnival setting and the catacombs are also ironic symbol sin this regard. Verbal irony occurs when the literal meaning of the speaker speech heavily contrasts with the actual message of the speaker. The irony is brought out in the mode of dressing of the characters in the story, their actions towards each other and eventually how their actions and their words are related. Irony is also represented by the names of the character sin the story.

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Autism

Autism
Introduction
Children with autism demonstrate impairments and challenges in their social interaction. They also exhibit delays in cognitive skills and require modifications on accommodations and classroom settings that are all inclusive. This can benefit them in participating in the classroom environment, which is good in nurturing their social development. Most children require specialized support that helps them experience success in the educational context (Matson & Nebal-Schwalm, 2007). This research paper explores the behavioral strategies for classroom modifications that teachers undertake in helping children in their foundation years and kindergarten. It is an empirical research that addresses the procedures for promoting inclusion of students. The paper provides the methodologies for research such as the quantitative and qualitative approaches, observational methods, naturalistic observation, and systematic observation. The strategies reviewed include delayed contingencies, antecedent manipulations, self-management, peer mediated interventions, and other approaches.
Significance
Researches on inclusion of students with autism provide schools with opportunities to deliver interventions. Children stay in school for many hours each day in their life development; therefore, it is necessary to make it as accommodating as possible. The behavioral strategies and classroom modifications provide the opportunity to deliver a comprehensive and intensive intervention that improves communication and socialization. Additionally, coordinating the education system with the parent education makes it possible to cover the child’s day with intervention and natural environment (Matson & Wilkins, 2007).
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Political Science. Opinion over Universal Health Care

Political Science
Opinion over Universal Health Care
Universal health care is set to provide reliable financial protection and health care to the citizens living in a state like Texas, USA. The program is set and organized as a specific package, meant to fit the people living in the country or state. Many countries have such programs, but a difference arises in the content and implementation stage. The program is set to provide protection for financial risk, and enhancing improvement in the accessibility to health services. The coverage of the services or program does not include everything for the citizens (Tanenbaum, 979).
Universal health care in Texas, USA, cannot fail because once the people use it eventually get used to it. As a general quote state, “if you like your doctor you will keep your doctor,” it becomes easy for the citizens to adopt and like the program if they become attracted to it at the beginning and nobody can be able to take it away from them. On the other hand, under the new law many of the citizens who work in many of the employment places will have to lose their coverage, whether they are used to the system or not (Gawande 67).
The universal health care system in Texas, does not give much concentration to quantity accomplished, but instead it gives much concern to the quality achieved and offered. It ensures that the best doctors and hospitals receive bonus payment for providing the best quality services. On the contrary because of the increase in population and groups aging in number years, quality of services offered become less attractive marked by the wait time and negative feedbacks received from the patients (Tanenbaum, 980).
Through the universal health care program, it has been estimated that the premium payable per family in Texas has been estimated to go down to $2000 for every family under the system. This has been accommodated by the reduction of medicine costs and out of pockets expenses incurred in the past. In the contrary, the promise made by USA president Obama that the cost of health care would go down, has not been achieved because of other factors affected that have direct influence to the this program or system. Additional costs influenced by tax incurred by manufacturers of drugs are then passed on eventually to the citizens through high prices (Raimer.et.al, 16).
Taxes collected from businesses and individuals, are used to pay for the services offered to the public. This implies that the program can never fail because the government will always collect taxes despite the state of the economy in the state. The tax initiative has made the services available and affordable constitutionally to the citizens. In the contrary, it becomes difficulty sometimes for the system to achieve the expected goal because there is a difference between ensuring tax payment and regulating a service or action (Burke, 44).
Conclusion
In conclusion, the universal health care in Texas is an excellent initiative because it gives the services that touch on the financial and health part of the middle-class families. This is a great achievement to the country besides the negative effects, which are not as evident compared to the benefits, and therefore, in my opinion I consider the system effective (Tanenbaum, 980).
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Winning the War against International Terrorism

After eluding arrest for two or three decades, the American SEAL team sealed the fate of Osama bin Laden on May 2, 2011 in a raid conducted at his hideout in Abbottabad, Pakistan (Gartenstein-Ross and Kyle 27). Osama bin Laden, once the most wanted terrorist in the world, founded Al-Qaeda and served as the spiritual leader of this radical Islamist group. The group had claimed responsibility for various terrorism attacks around the world, especially the September 11th attack that left of 3000 Americans dead and destroyed property of invaluable magnitude. With regards to his heinous acts that wounded, maimed, and shattered the lives of many innocent civilians, the world received the news of his death in joy and relief because to them it signaled the death of Al-Qaeda and the end of widespread terrorism across the world (Mayer website). The killing of Osama bin Laden jeopardized the activities and operations of Al-Qaeda and left the group impotent thus a clear indication of the milestones achieved in the war against terrorism. Contrary to previous beliefs that terrorism is unwinnable because of ‘an army of Osamas’, the death of the only Osama signaled the beginning of an end to world terrorism thus nations should cooperate to aid in the capturing or killing of the last group that can reverse the situation (Rollins 121).
Firstly, the death of bin Laden minimized the immediate threat that the fearsome Al-Qaeda group possessed because they lack leadership capable of mobilizing members. After the May 2 victory, Al-Qaeda was left without a natural replacement that could take over the mantle and mobilize the terrorist group like Osama bin Laden (Gartenstein-Ross and Kyle 27). The intelligence agencies from the United States have continued to win the war through the capture and killing of possible replacements. Today, American operatives have captured or killed over 20 possible heirs or replacements. For example, dangerous and highly influential leaders such as Anwar al-Awlaki, Ilyas Kashmiri and Atiyah Abd al-Rahman have lost their lives in various operations thus ending their possible ascension to the vacant throne (Mayer website). Similarly, the expected replacement of Osama bin Laden, Ayman al-Zawahiri has remained ineffective and failed to rebuild and unite the group as most people expected. From this trend and the recent capture of other terrorists in Libya and Somalia, the leadership of Al-Qaeda suffered a great blow that led to its disintegration and subsequent inability to carry out their atrocities successfully.
Secondly, the death of bin Laden created a financial vacuum that the group has failed to fill. Terrorist activities require adequate financing to ensure large-scale success in different regions of the world (Gartenstein-Ross and Kyle 29). For example, they need cash to purchase weapons, pay operatives, and travel across the world. The ‘successes’ of Osama bin Laden point out to the possibility of having sufficient access to financial assistance from investments, sympathizers and other sources. However, he died with all his financial sources thus creating a financial problem for a group that needs adequate funding from time to time. Today, Al-Qaeda remains docile without any significant threat to the world’s security after the death of its leader (Mayer website).
Lastly, the untimely death of bin Laden jeopardized the recruitment process of the group thus it suffers from a manpower shortage (Gartenstein-Ross and Kyle 33). The symbolic and charismatic personality of bin Laden attracted many Arab youths to join radical Islamists and fight for the wrong cause. This allowed the original Al-Qaeda to have many youths ready to wear explosive vests and perpetrate Jihad against innocent civilians (Mayer website). However, there is a lack of inspiration and motivation to attract young Jihadists who can even avenge the death of their leader and fulfill his vision. Accordingly, the number of recruits continues to decline consistently thus weakening the group (Rollins 118). However, lone jihadists and offshoots may still pose a threat to the world thus the society should ensure that they do not remain complacent and give an opportunity to another potential threat. For instance, individuals with no terrorism affiliations seem to be emerging to perpetrate their cowardice wars against countries and religions superior to the Islamic community and religion.
At the wake up of the 1998 bombings in East Africa, many people believed that the United States and its allies would never win the war against terrorism because Al-Qaeda had ‘an army of Osamas’ to ensure that the leader is not captured or is replaced when one dies (Rollins 113). However, the demise if the dreaded bin Laden two years ago has demystified these assumptions and put the world on the right course towards ending terrorism across the globe (Mayer website). Therefore, nations should unite to take advantage of the current confusion and uncertainty among terrorist groups to halt their regrouping and ensure that they are defeated and buried forever.
The international community should not just focus on the war against conventional terrorism but also commit more resources to the fight against lone jihadist who seem to be the next threat (Gartenstein-Ross and Kyle 35).

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Methodology and Discussion

1. Method
1.2. Literature Method And Styles
The study involves a review of two articles. The first article is “The Role of Knowledge Network Sructures …” by Roger Anderson O. In this article, the author uses an essay with a combination of styles to present information. The essays have very long paragraphs and illustrative graphics. In between the paragraphs, there are spaces. The language used in the writing is clear and straightforward with minimal vocabularies, except the specific terms relevant to the subject of study.
1.2. Research Method
In the essay, the author has used citations and references for the sources of information that do not belong to his own art of creativity. This is a professional requirement in any typical academic writing to avoid plagiarism and the risk of penalties. He also uses graphs and tables to present the actual data provided for the research. Its lines within the paragraph have single spacing and the author uses very small fonts.
1.3. Statistical and Cognitive Method
The second article is “Learning landscape: Mind, Brain and Education: Implications for Educators” by Lynn Butler-Kisber. This article is a journal that assumes a report structure. It begins by introducing the title, the period of the journal and the list of authors. It also introduces the list of editorial staff, table of contents and the purpose of study. The data is presented in a research and statistical methods after relevant computation.
1.4. Artistic Method
The article uses dynamic styles including the combination of colors, unlike the first article that uses only black and white color. It emphasizes on the statement of purpose by giving a whole page to cover its details. The font in the article is large enough for the reader. The article also uses references and citation for professionalism.
2. Finding in relation to the theory
The first article by Roger Anderson is a research article, which investigates various topics and subtopics. For example, the evaluation of relationship among recursive network (Anderson, 2000). It then presents the categories of interviews and categories of biological evolution. In this, the author presents a graph with the order modes of thinking such as r = 0.55, r = 0.75, r = 0.83 and r = 0.85 (Anderson, 2000). In the frequency distribution, the largest number of linkage is that of category between 10 and 14, which gives 20 participants. The networking capacity presents the knowledge pattern with students between 10 and 14 years of age leading the rest in essay presentation (Anderson, 2000). The content analysis category shows the mean per transcript of interview with a separate categorization. The categories include network linkages, relations recalled, system statements, categories recalled, principles and generalization.
The article by Lynn Butler-Kisbe presents reports from various professionals. For example, 90 percent of adults propose the use of textbooks to attain success (Butler-Kisber, 2011). It also shows in one of its reports that on average, workers stay on the same job for at least 40 years before changing to another employer (Butler-Kisber, 2011). It showed another result of its findings that on average, children learn a new language and begin to speak at the age of 12 years (Butler-Kisber, 2011). It shows that beyond that age, learning a new language is extremely difficult and requires extra efforts to teach. The other report that it showed indicated that about 34 percent of teachers are able to set study themes while the rest cannot (Butler-Kisber, 2011). The 34 percent appeared in writing samples that were published. Similarly, 14 % of the teachers could not remember the themes later (Butler-Kisber, 2011).

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Phishing Attacks: Identification and Prevention

Phishing Attacks
Phishing attacks describe the fraudulent attempts by a third party to acquire other people’s personal information. This is a major problem when considering internet security because people store a lot of their personal information online. The most common types of phishing are third parties masquerading to be individuals or entities they are not. Therefore, when an internet user communicates with them, they assume their false identities and are vulnerable to releasing any type of personal information. This leaves them vulnerable to theft and their own personal security, as well.
Identification
There are a number of ways that an individual can identify a phishing attack on them or another user. With the current levels of technology, it is possible to establish the location and frequency of an internet connection in order to identify an attacker. One of the most effective methods of identifying an attacker is tracing down links that connect users to illegitimate websites. Similarly, attackers also require regular and reliable information in order to enable their users to download malicious malware. There is a lot of evidence to suggest that the Phish Guru offers the best protection to identifying phishing attacks on individuals or entities (Garfinkel, 2013).
Prevention
All the same, it is possible to prevent phishing attacks from happening by following some simple procedures. In addition, there are a number of tools that an individual can setup that will keep off attackers from accessing personal information. Digital forensic tools offer the best protection from phishing attacks because they have the capability of preventing them in advance. There is a likening of these tools to the internet police and they help to regulate the level of activities between the users. There are five categories of digital forensic tools that assist in fighting instances of phishing attacks (Nena & Anne, 2009).
Computer Forensics
Computer forensics identifies and attacks crimes coming from a single computer. This method employs the need of establishing the source and methods of attacks coming from a definite location. Thus, there are three steps that constitute a total computer forensics in determining the source of phishing attacks. The software forensics identifies the codes in the computers to establish if there are any malicious programs. The second step, cyber forensics, identifies several computers and their communication patterns. This helps to establish the occurrence and frequency of phishing attacks and their influence in the communication lines. The third step is the documents forensics that identifies the malicious documents in a computer. A good example of such a tool is the Phish Guru, which tests on the internet indicate as quite effective when using one computer at a time.
Memory Forensics
The main constituent of the memory forensics is the random access memory that it accessible to anybody. An individual seeking to extract information will have to store it in an image dump, accessible in the future. This allows security personnel to identify the sources and identity of the phishing attacks. This ability to store the image of the transactions happening on a computer helps to pinpoint the exact location of a phishing attack. A good example of a tool to use in this case is the Random Access Memory, which is also viable online. This is also helpful in identifying any altercations in the data (Mohammad, Avita, & Goudar, 2013).
Network Forensics
The network forensics takes a direct approach in preventing phishing attacks by looking at a defense of the entire network. If an attacker cannot access a computer or a specific location through the network, it offers the most credible security against phishing attacks. There are a number of ways of regulating the network to ensure that there is no access to the systems from outsiders. One of the most effective methods of setting up a secure network is identifying group signatures from definite locations. Completely deterring the access of attackers discourages them from panning future attacks (Pavlou & Snodgrass, 2013).
Mobile Phone Forensics
During the past few decades, there has been a tremendous rise in the use of mobile phones. This means that this opens up another door for phishing attacks because of the popularity of hand-held devices. Therefore, a mobile phone forensics establishes network and security measures of preventing access to hand-held devices. Unlike computers, mobile phone devices have a lower storage capability and thus ca only hold a little data. This makes them easier to detect those attacks that are altering the data within the device in order to provide security. There are several android applications that act as suitable tools; internet testing shows that they are compatible only with a specified type of mobile phone. Phishing attacks that target mobile devices are easier to identify and take action upon (Danuvasin, 2013).
Database Forensics
Phishing attacks normally target databases in order to extract and alter information. This is because of the volume and extent of data coming from multiple users and different locations. Finding an appropriate method of preventing these large scale attacks offers an opportunity to establish credible security online. This process will take a longer period of time because they identify the source of the attack, the time, the malicious intent f the program and the identity of the attacker. Therefore, a notarization procedure of coding the hashes of transactions will identify attacks in the future when there are any differences with the values in the computer. This procedure allows the prevention of common phishing attacks and helps to identify new sources of attacks to develop a mitigation strategy for them.
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Gil and Adriana

Movie synopsis
Gil formerly a screenwriter and still harboring the dream that he will one day bounce back to the limelight as he had always anticipated in his hay days and join the league of famous novelist and hence get to be famous at the moment he is caught up in Paris the place he would wish to spend his spring time in not very sure he is in love with the woman he is with or just in love with Paris. Gil has this nostalgic urge like he wants to relieve the days when he was a screenwriter. And from the first phrases of his novel which stein reads out aloud it is prove indeed he loves the past. At this point is where she meets Adriana who just like Gil bears a soft spot for the past and conforms this with emphasis when she praises the novel. She appears to be the only one taking an interest and thus the two are left as everyone else minds other business. The two engage in a revealing conversation where Adriana gives sensitive details of her love life how she has been a mistress to Braque and Modiligliani and at the moment she is Picasso’s lover she goes on to suggest that soon she may fall in love with him (Gil) since in comparison to previous lovers he projects humility and might as well be.
Scene synopsis:
At this scene synopsis
At this point the movie is still In the introductory part Gil has arrived in Paris for the spring break with his girlfriend of whom she seemingly loves yet not clear whether it is the idea of being in Paris he is in love with or her girlfriend, under mysterious circumstances that he teams up with Hemmingway to go to a woman’s house. Along with him he carries his novel that he never allows anyone else to read except for his friend who he idolizes, in the confines of the house stein takes up the incomplete novel and on perusing it she seems to consult Hemmingway as to whether she could go ahead Hemingway reassures her and she reads of the first page. The nostalgic message portrayed catches the attention of Adriana and she exclaims that she is hooked, the rest of the crowd do not share the same sentiments and focus of attention shifts to Gil and Adrian as they pour their hearts out they indulge in quite a deep conversation given they are strangers prompting each other and surely they have something in common both of them love the past.
Character analysis: Gil
Super objective: Gil a once promising screenwriter continues to dwell in a dream that was. He has a habit of scribbling and jotting down his thoughts in a poetic manner of the past, he was once ambitious and always hoped to make it among the top American novelists. Apparently the only friend he can really share with what really makes him happy is the tiny book he has a girlfriend but seems they have different ideologies altogether.
Scene objective: he is completely drawn to this one girl who seems to echo his sentiments with regard to the past and he is willing to ascertain that for sure he leaves no stone unturned as he tries to unveil the mystery of that is Adriana.

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Technology and ideology

According to the journal, telegraph played a major role in the gradual transition from the use of letters as a means of communication. For instance it stole the detailed narration of events in the letters, the glamour of the literary style that was common with letters and replaced that with the brevity. The telegraph also impacted historical empires considerably. First, it offered a faster means of communication for the military and aided the colonial transition in different nations. The telegraph man’s shack formed a center of interest for top officials in these historical times as knowledge was often monopolized in this area. Moreover, during this time it marked the separation of transport and communication as delivery of messages as they did not require physical movement.
Similarly, the telegraph had a vital impact on ideology of business. It affected the sale of good around the world and the greatly improved commerce. The difference between the cost and the price of the items sold in different locations lay in the transportation cost, a factor that was often reduced by the existence of the telegraph. The fact that the telegraph made geography irrelevant is possibly the greatest impact it had on the ideology of business.
In my opinion, technological advances can have significant effects on the recipient population that causes an impact on their livelihood. In this case, the fact that the telegraph cleared of ideology of geographical location and its limitation to the business process paved way for the existence of modern day technologies. It forced people to seek alternative ways of reaching different markets as seen in ecommerce today. Telegraph can, therefore, be assumed to be a distant fore runner of the internet.

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“Grab and Go Salad Bar”

Executive Summary
“Grab and Go Salad Bar” aims at establishing a niche market of an organic and natural food product. Fast food industry is the most competitive business. In order to be successful, there should be an efficient product chain and products of high quality. The management should strive to act in a socially responsible manner towards its customers, employees and investors. The product will be nutritious, healthy, and still desirable to taste. Singapore was the best entrant market of choice for the new innovative concept. This is because of the constructive aspects of the population structure of the city and lifestyles. The strategy will be simple, but its implementation will be innovative. The competitive advantage of this business is the product’s quality compared to other brands. Based on the new distribution and production concepts, the prices will be affordable and competitive. The promotion will be executed using radio and billboards. Moreover, there will be distribution of flyers in local advertisements and newspapers. The relationship with customers will be managed in an innovative way; bringing extra value to customers not only in discounts or cards, but also by offering awareness to a healthier lifestyle and food. Business risks are variable. One of the biggest risks is competition in the industry, as well as budget marketing. This is the reason why this business shall stand out from its rivals. In addition, people may forget or ignore the new product, which is why promotion and marketing will be vital.

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Technology and its Effects on the Privacy of Americans

In the social setting of America, technology has brought about concerns and arguments. Privacy is an aspect of every American’s life. With the advent of Information Technology, issues of privacy are growing at a rapid rate. What often times seems to be a benefit to society can hold hidden dangers. This paper will show that although technology is in many ways breathtakingly awesome, our privacy in this country is eroding away. With progress of IT, privacy is becoming more and more diminished.
“Privacy is the right to be left alone and free from surveillance and unreasonable personal intrusions.” (Heaney) “Information privacy is the right to determine when and to what extent information about oneself can be communicated to others.” (Heaney) Just a simple search on the Internet can reveal significant information about just about anyone. For a small fee, even more information can be bought when someone is in search of an individual’s personal information. Technology is progressive. Building block by building block, technological advances are stacking on top of each other. It is the old technologies that make room for the new technologies to emerge. Sometimes the new technologies, although never their original intention, jeopardize privacy. The innovations of electronic surveillance and access to personal information are areas that America is going through growing pains over.
Electronic surveillance is often described and defined as a comfort for Americans. Officers around the country use electronic surveillance to scout out potential crimes with the mind-set to intervene before the crime takes place or to build evidence in cases. Audio, video and photography are often technologies that are used in criminal research. What is interesting about electronic surveillance is that those being surveyed are not ever aware that their voices are being recorded, video of themselves is streaming live, and their photograph is being taken, documented and shared without their knowledge. When surveillance techniques work and a criminal is caught, most of us would resoundingly say how wonderful technology is. Yet, when law enforcement is wrong and an innocent citizen’s privacy has been breeched, those same methods of technology become unsettling. When the audio and video intended for the criminal catches just the average Joe chatting on his cell-phone discussing his 401K with his Investment Banker, this form of technology can be accurately described as a hidden danger in American society. When American’s stop to think about how often they are electronically surveyed, numerous thoughts quickly enter their minds. Providence, Rhode Island and various cities across America effectively use surveillance at their traffic lights. With ease, they issue tickets for running red lights just from the surveillance videos. Along with the information that someone ran a red light, these cities now know what time and how often a driver drives through that intersection each day. On a positive note, this can provide good information for traffic engineers and traffic safety, but is it a violation of American’s civil rights to have so much information gathered, organized and made public? ATM machines document American’s coming and goings as well. Often times the surveillance of an ATM includes citizens getting in and out of their vehicles and can capture images of objects in a female’s purse. Tollbooths know when Americans are on the highway and can even calculate how fast the car was going based on the distance between toll stops. Business offices know when citizens walk in and when they leave. Electronic surveillance was recently used to successfully track down the minute-by-minute steps of a Patriot’s football player accused of murder. Law enforcement was able to trace his steps from surveillance cameras located in numerous different settings between Boston, MA and North Attleboro, MA. That is a wonderful use of technology, but for the law-abiding citizen; is it fair to have his or her own personal driving patterns and habits recorded for anyone to search, learn and use without a citizen knowing?
What technologies are often intended for evolves into something much different than originally planned. “Alexander Graham Bell thought the telephone would primarily be a business tool and was surprised to find people using it for idle chat. Thomas Edison did not envision his phonograph being used for music and entertainment.” (Ceruzzi) The things we have gained from the telephone and the phonograph were never even ideas in the inventor’s original mindset. “Social trends are difficult to anticipate. General forecasting is risky, failure common.” (Nye) It would be advantageous of Americans to think more deeply about the technologies surrounding us.
In the age of social media and data base records, very little of American’s personal information is private. An afternoon spent on the Internet can provide information that years ago would have taken days to research. The ease of access to information has created more of a desire to know in American’s minds. People living in houses around each of us spend time looking into the personal business of their neighbors, simply because access to the data is simple. No longer do citizens have to traipse into the Office of Public Records and muddle through page after page of documents or painfully scrounge through microfiche. The Internet has made almost all record searching possible. Not only is it possible, it is easy. In the last generation, the price of one’s mortgage was private and considered a topic to avoid in personal conversations. Today, those conversations are still somewhat avoided, but a couple clicks of a button can provide anyone with the cost of their neighbor or their employer’s home. “The availability of personal information shows no signs of slowing. In fact, courts and government agencies at all levels are increasingly making public records available online.” (Heaney) Social Security numbers of every member of a family are in databases across the country making the possibility of Identity Theft more probable for all Americans. As wonderful as it is for consumers to hop onto their Kindle and be given recommendations from Amazon of books they would like, is this aspect of technology worth the decrease of privacy? Amazon knows what American’s read and they make a profit recommending what we like to
wet our appetite and make us crave more. Starbucks knows the favorite drink of their customers who use their Mobile App. This is not because of a relationship that has been built from frequent comings and goings, but because technology has allowed Starbucks to track who buys what, when, how often and in what locations. In turn Starbucks uses personal data information to market better and predict what their customers may do next. “Unforeseen consequences stand in the way of all those who think they see clearly the direction in which a new technology will take us. Not even those who invent a technology can be assumed to be reliable prophets.” (Thamus) All of this data that is available so easily is another hidden danger of technology and how it effects the privacy of Americans across the country.
“Technology will never stop moving forward due to all the great thinkers out there.” (Zorzini) As the thinkers of the next generation – the ones creating all of this amazing, life-changing technology, we need to be thinking about evolving technology and anticipating the positives and negatives that come with it. With some of the negatives we find it is because, “those who proposed it did not think far enough to anticipate the side effects, the unintended consequences.” (Ceruzzi) There are often immediate consequences of a technology that are foreseen and avoided, but the long-term effects such as what is unseen with technology and American’s privacy are not often logistically thought through. Kranzberg tells us that, “Technical developments frequently have environmental, social, and human consequences that go far beyond the immediate purposes of the technical devices and practices themselves.” Just because we have the ability, know-how and
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Business Law II(Bankruptcy, insurance, property and leases)

What about if someone is trespassing? Is a property owner liable if an illegal trespasser gets injured on the property? Usually, the answer is no. So, one of the first factors to evaluate is determining the legal status of your visitor. If your visitor was illegally visiting your property and gets injured, then you would not be liable for the visitor’s injuries unless you intentionally hurt the trespasser, or knew of a hidden danger and had an opportunity to warn.
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Writer’s choice

Introduction
There are numerous opportunities that come with the virtual world, but we can also not fail to recognize the risks as well. There has been an increase in cyber bullying and the kind of online behavior that is portrayed shows that there is concern about both the real and virtual world. There are some provided guidelines that give training on the risks with technology and online activity that children can use to prevent cyber bullying and also to maintain and protect their reputation online. It has been noted that for most children sexing and texting are part of the frequent online behaviors that children spend most of their time in. It is important to note that cyber bullying threatens the overall well being of children and thus there is minimal research that studies online behavior in regard to the virtual world, Therefore, adults must understand five key points so that they make sure that their children are safe in the cyber interactions: Technology use in children and youth where it is found out that children at their younger ages may be underestimated thus the adults may be failing to protect the children from the usage of these dangers. Prevalence and the impact of cyber bullying, was found that over a third of the victims of cyber bullying were harassed multiple times and that close t half of the cyber bullies had bullied more than three times by the use of electronic means. This therefore means that adults must monitor their children closely to reduce these kinds of statistics. Sexting, statistics show that one in five teens participate in sexting, this should help parents and schools grasp the need to understand how to prevent the abuse and misuse of phones. Texting, and online reputation and the social and emotional side of bullying and the prevention of cyber bullying which can cause a student psychological problems thus making it hard for them to concentrate in their studies.
Methods
This study is set to explore the differences that exist in perceptions of the third to fifth grade students in the case of bullying and cyber bullying. The genders and grades were explored as well.
Results
The results showed that 6.3% of the respondents had received mean or hurtful text messages about them and 10% had received these kinds of messages about others. 36.3% were worried about bullying online as it was noted that worry declines as the children advanced in grades. 36.3% for third graders, 27.7% for fourth and 18% for fifth graders. 67% of the responses showed that they received hurtful texts about them and 57% were female. 11.9% of the respondents were reported to worry about online bullying for third graders, 10% reported having someone talk to them about bullying for fourth graders and 14.4% reported having someone talk to them on online bullying for fifth graders. 14.5% females were talked to about bullying while, 9.4% males were talked to.

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Overcoming Obstacles in Life

When doctors diagnosed me with brain trauma, and then realized that my right hand was weak, I thought that was end of my life. I saw it as a set back to my life and thought that I could not participate in any activity in future life. Furthermore, I realized that my performance in class was not that pleasing. The grades were deplorable; I seemed to strain in my study and keeping memory of what we learnt. I had lost hope of becoming a healthcare practitioner in future. My dreams had been cut short; I had always admired doctors and nurses in their clean white coats.
However, I managed to redeem myself by joining the Clear Lake Boys basketball team. I realized that, in me there were more strengths than the weaknesses. It was during my tenure in this basketball team that we crushed many of our rival teams and emerged top within the zone. Furthermore, the team was awarded as the most consistent team throughout the academic period. On personal level, I realized that I could train my left hand to operate normally like right hand. This would help me in writing my homework and even solving problems in class. In addition, this team practice helped me train my brain to keep memory of the event, an aspect that has helped me cope with class work, since I can now remember some of things we learn in class.
The other contributing factor that has brought hope to my life and has greatly shed light of bright life in future is my participation in church activities as volunteer in the summer camp. In this camp, the youths get to interact and share their life histories as well as the challenges they have faced. Moreover, they also narrate the steps they have taken in finding solutions to these challenges. This volunteer activity has helped me gain confidence in all that I do, knowing that it is possible as long as there is will. I also volunteer at Houston Food Bank, as chef and waiter. This has helped improve my social life by interacting with diverse group of people. I have learnt to consider other people’s urgencies first before self. With this kind of experience, I am confident that dealing with patients and other customer within the health care field will be an easy ride for me. As volunteer in my life I have learnt that, it is not all about wealth, payment or even money, but passion and commitment to that which has been entrusted on me. Therefore, it has been crucial in building me to be a future social worker in the healthcare field.
In terms of talents, skills and achievement, I have managed to spend quality time of my long vacations learning Spanish as well as the computer packages. I have magnificent skills in computer Word, Excel, PowerPoint and even internet operation. My fluency in Spanish is adorable. With these skills and achievements, I feel that I have no barrier towards my dream of becoming a health care profession, since I can interact with other none-Anglophone speaking people without any problem. This gives me an allowance to work in any country that speaks Spanish.
Finally, with much involvement in extra-curricular activities, I managed to improve in my academic performance. For the past ended academic period in college, in which I was taking Bachelor of science in biology and human geography, I managed to get 2.7/4.0 aggregate points. This is clear indication that, I have risen above my challenges in the past to emerge victorious in all my past undertakings. Therefore, it is appropriate then to conclude that, the past and present success I have made in my life, both in education and extra-curricular activities are surety that I will be able to achieve my dreams in future.

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The Debate over Gun Control

The ideas of crime and guns seem to always end up together. What association do they have? Does gun use cause crime? When a law is instituted to place a restriction on firearm usage and ownership, does it stop crime and protect citizens? Several people and those that make these laws ask themselves these questions when instituting new gun control laws. However, this debate is not original. A presidential candidate in 1924 stated that his intention was to decide which people could have a firearm and at what conditions should they own it. Obviously this argument is still going on today and that is why gun laws have been formed.
Firearms can be very powerful, causing destruction and death. Guns have been used as a form of defense, but also as a means of threat and killing. Those in education institutions should stay updated on the current events happening in our country now. A very important issue currently resides in the topic of controlling guns. It is especially important to be aware of the direction gun control laws are taking. Our future and nation will be heavily affected by the direction that gun control laws could take.
So what is so important about gun control laws anyway? In order to find an answer to this question of the importance of gun laws look at the statistics about handguns in our society. Almost half of the households in the United States have at least one gun and about 30,000 people have been fatally wounded by a gunshot each year. With this information it is not surprising that gun control has become such an important issue. Even though this may seem bad, firearm related incidents have gone down over the years. The number of people hurt or fatally wounded by firearms went up drastically in the 1900’s. However, from the time of 1993, deaths by firearms have gone down quite a bit. Deadly accidents involving a gun have gone down by almost 40 percent in ten years, currently at an all time low. Why has there been a sudden drop? Those against gun use would like to think it is because there are more laws controlling gun use, but those advocating gun use point out a drop in unemployment as well as other social factors.
Using the labeling theory on pro gun activist is that they are labeled as extremist and are assumed to have low intelligence by the liberal left. The entire purpose of the second amendment in the constitution was to make sure people had the power to keep their government under control of the people. In today’s society, those who oppose the use of guns see them as barbaric and that guns serve no purpose in modern society.
But do gun control laws really work is the question here. Statistics show that they do. However, to thoroughly understand this matter one must look at the laws about controlling gun use that are currently instituted. Several federal and state laws are in place to stop selling, being able to buy, and having guns to use. Even though they are different in each region, fundamental laws are placed federally, in affect nationwide. One of these basic laws is that no one who has been found to have committed a criminal act can get a gun; someone has to be at least twenty-one years old to buy a handgun and those who run a business of selling guns have to have a special license. One law that has the most impact, passed recently, was the Brady Handgun Control Act in 1993. This law is in effect in thirty-two states. It requires the purchaser to wait for a certain period after buying a gun while a background check is done to make sure the person purchasing the gun is not someone who has committed a crime.
Laws of controlling gun use have gone a long way and affected many although these laws don’t always stop people from getting a gun. The Brady Handgun Control Act caused it to be much harder to buy and have a firearm. Those who advocate gun control say it is not enough. But firearm related incidents have gone down since this law has been in place. More strict laws are needed or there will be added steps of gun brutality which will afflict this nation. Those who advocate gun ownership observe the laws that control gun ownership as a way the government is trying to have power over the people. The actual argument, between each group, is deciding which things constitute what allows those to be able to have a firearm as well as by what conditions would persons have the access to it?
Using the labeling theory on anti gun activist is most of them are overly protective and non-confrontational. They have a sense that guns are beneath them and will never see anything good or important to come out of using a gun. Although they want their police and military to keep them safe with the aid of guns, they don’t want them in the hands of common people with little to no training in their neighborhood or areas.
The use of guns is part of everyone’s life. It can span from the individual ownership of a rifle for hunting to a teenager in possession of a handgun in a local neighborhood. Americans value the rights and freedoms that were granted to them granted through our ancestors that involve owning guns which is laid out in the constitution as the Second Amendment. People must ask themselves if gun control is really in place for our benefit. However, one should also wonder if it will take away the rights we have as citizens.
Many groups are involved in this debate. It is not just those for or against guns but has arisen as a problem of national importance at several different levels and approaches. Three specific levels that have many different interests and views are political, social, and criminal.
Gun control is dealt with politically by laws that are made and groups of political interest that are involved in this debate. Our government makes these critical laws about gun control and this in turn affects the entire country. So the importance is to look at our government as a key participant in this debate. Two important parties in the political arena are those who are influencing one side of each agenda concerning gun control. Those of the Democratic Party and the Republican Party are the two leading facets in the United States today. Republicans have, for a long time, been advocates of being able to have guns, because they are conservative as well as being backed more and more by the NRA, an influential drive in the movement of gun ownership. In the 2000 elections republicans received 92 percent of their congressional campaign donations from the National Rifle Association (NRA). Democrats are more interested in gun control, but because the public has not been as concerned about it and since there has been as rise in firearm purchases following the terrorist attack of September 11 in 2001, they have not brought up the issue as much. Democrats and Republicans want to get more backing through pleasing to a certain group in this argument; currently the Republican party is doing well at this.
A main responsibility of the government is to maintain the basic rights of the people and make new laws that guarantee their safety and security. In the fight of gun control this is particularly true. A very important matter in gun control is dependent upon the constitutional rights of the Second Amendment and if it really does give common citizens freedom of firearm ownership. In recent times, the position on this issue stayed the same for about seventy years and it was because this amendment made these rights available only to armed forces. This was tested by Ashcroft, an attorney general. In 2002, he stated in his filing with the Supreme Court that the Second Amendment is in place to guard the rights of the people so that they can possess and bear firearms. When he said this it disrupted the base of firearm management and gained honor from advocates of gun ownership. The people are greatly affected by these laws the government has enacted and is expected this organization is in our best interest.
At the center of this debate are the citizens, on the social side. In the social side of this debate, those who are helping to encourage or to disrupt laws controlling gun ownership. When people vote, laws are put into place, so society has become a strong influence in the issue of gun control. Author, Lance Stell makes it clear that the big problem with gun control is whether owning or purchasing a gun should be a social cause of homicide and suicide rates in America. The main argument about ownership of gun and controlling them is this and has become an important ground as to why laws of controlling firearms have been instituted.
Several groups are backing this debate; those of different races are even affected by it. The African American community has been heavily affected by guns in this country; deaths perpetrated by firearms in this way are nearly five times that of Caucasians. The problem is well-known and is brought up by an editor for the magazine, Black Enterprise, Earl G. Graves Sr., looking for a resolution to the issue by better supervising the young adults and taking an important stance in the side of passing and enforcing gun control laws.
Will stricter gun control laws keep gun related crime at bay? Many feel that having more guns means there will be more violence. However, Switzerland has more access to firearms then most other countries and there are less killing and burglary rates than the United Kingdom, which has banned guns. In the United States, an author, John Lott, writes that a larger decrease in crime means there is a greater amount of gun ownership. Does that mean having fewer guns means there will be less crime? A way to answer this would be by seeing an opposite part of the argument, criminals associated with guns.
Other than taking away the common citizen’s guns in order to keep the public safe, another purpose of gun control is to keep guns out of the hands of criminals. But criminals will always find a way to attain what they need and have been able to gain access to guns in spite of the many regulations preventing them from owning a gun. These laws are under an act called Dangerous Possessor Gun Control that is in place to prohibit anyone who has been convicted of a crime for over a sentence of one year from owning a gun. Most criminals have about six years of prior history and usually four felony arrests before they commit murder. The president of the Eagle Forum, Phyllis Schafly, an organization that concentrates on family, has said those who advocate gun control often spread stories that the people who commit the most violence are just regular citizens, not criminals.
Who are gun control laws taking guns away from? Some think that if criminals think someone is unarmed they won’t worry as much about hurting other people. In the countries of Canada and the United Kingdom, guns are banned and if a burglary happens where a gun is used it is considered a “hot burglary.” This happens fifty percent there and thirteen percent in the United States. Those who advocate gun control do not agree with the idea that letting citizens have their guns could stop a large amount of offenses. A legislative director for the Violence Policy Center, Kristen Rand, states that she doesn’t think a criminal will just give up when they see a handgun. She feels that is not the reality of this situation. The issue of gun control laws and whether they harm or assist those these laws are in place to guard is always going to be debated.
Using the labeling theory on the criminals that use guns to commit crimes is that they are not going to obtain guns legally so no law will affect them. A law is only as good as the person willing to follow it. For instance if no one used a seatbelt, then how could law enforcement possible uphold the seatbelt law if no one will follow it to start with? Stopping guns from winding up in the hands of criminals might be a better approach then stopping law abiding citizens from being able to buy or own guns but, how do you stop criminals? In England and other countries that has taken away all the guns from the people and from the police, they still have large number of violent crimes committed with guns, knives, and even sticks. The label placed on a criminal is that they will break the law no matter what it is to do what they want to. Maybe we need to be harsher on certain crimes and change laws on others that over run or criminal system that does not deal with violence.
All three sides of this debate, political, social and criminal take some share in the responsibility of the gun control debate. Each has a connection to the issues at hand. It is the criminal portion of gun control that brings on social strife and spurs political action. All three sides are trying to stop or encourage gun control laws which have a significant impact on each of the people on behalf of the argument.
Clearly, the parties involved in this argument of controlling guns will not dissolve. In our lifetime there will be important transformations involving the present policies that will deal with the possession of firearms. Close attention should be paid to this debate since the impact of these policies will more than likely change our lives.
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Death Penalty

The death penalty or capital punishment has remained controversial in the modern society. Across the globe, a veritable crusade has been going on to scrap this form of penalty on the argument that it is against the right to life and the principles of humanity. On the other hand, there are those who support it on the argument that it helps in deterrence of crime by merciless criminals who commit serious crimes such as murder, robbery by violence and treason. For decades, this debate has raged on, with no conclusion on the way forward. As it stands, many countries have repealed their laws that allowed for capital punishment even as lobbying for the same continues throughout the world. The challenge is that both supporters and opponents of capital punishment have serious reasons as to why they support or oppose this form of punishment. From an overall perspective, I concur that capital punishment is retrogressive and is not good for humanity and should not be practiced in modern society.
There is an assumption that crime detection helps in crime deterrence. For many of the supporters of capital punishment, criminals would fear engaging in serious crimes such as murder for fear of being apprehended and subjected to capital punishment. With death, being an occurrence most feared by human beings, it is assumed that use of capital punishment would make others that would have easily committed such crimes to keep off. Whereas this assumption may be logical in some way, it fails to address many other factors that subject humans into committing certain crimes such as murder (Mandery, 2011). It assumes that persons committing such crimes are rational in nature and out of influence of any other factor except that they have no reason to shy away from committing these crimes. If this assumption were to be truthful, then the role of psychologists and counselors would have been rendered useless.
Allowing capital punishment to have a place in the society has a number of consequences. The first consequence is reducing the level of humanity in people. The need to protect life should be the priority of any other law in a country or a given region. Supporters of capital punishment argue it is necessary to protect lives through providing for capital punishment to those who commit murder. However, this would amount to applying the wrong principle in resolving an issue. By sentencing one to death and taking them to the noose, a society would be promoting murder. This implies that the main agenda of the law in holding dear the lives of human beings cannot be achieved through implementation of laws, which supports capital punishment (Mandery, 2011).
The main intention of the law and correction facility is provision of justice to all parties involved in a case. Justice would always be analyzed from two-way prospect, justice to the victim, and justice to the accused or the offender. To the victim, justice would be done when such persons are brought under book. Sentencing a murder to death and the execution of that person by the concerned authorities may seem to be just to the victim and his or her relatives. Since we are humans, the relatives and friends of the deceased would feel contended, that justice has taken place at last (State Department, 2006). However, on the side of the victim, justice was done. This is because the intention of any judicial system and law enforcement agencies or bodies is to cause positive behavior change to criminals. For the case of execution, the accused, or the offender is never given a chance to reform and live better lives. This gives all reasons as to why capital punishment must be fought at all costs.
The foundations of capital punishment would give clear indications that the intention of executing this form of punishment was not to facilitate crime deterrence, but to serve the high and the mighty. The authorities used capital punishment to stem resistance and force the execution of the leader’s will in the society (Siegel, 2009). This foundation has all indications that capital punishment is wrongly founded and that one cannot defend this form of punishment on the argument that it aids in getting justice to the society.
The law is meant to protect human beings and ensure that their rights and freedoms are well protected. One of the greatest rights as enshrined in the UN charter of human rights, to which all countries subscribe to, is the right to humanity (Kramer, 2012). The right to humanity ought to be granted to every other person, regardless of their situation of the crimes they have committed. Of proper consideration is the fact that human rights are an entitlement to everybody, not because of their position, but because they are human (Lenta & Farland, 2008). This right cannot be waived to criminals’ because it aids in averting furtherance of the sad crime and scares away others from committing such crimes.
Capital punishment cannot be the nest mechanism to fighting serious crimes such as murder in the society. Whereas human beings fear death and to large extension, execution, putting in place capital punishment to offenders who commit murder and other heinous crimes is not an automatic or a guarantee that one would shy away from committing such crimes. Many other factors could have played a role in having the offender commit such a crime as murder. Such an assumption would be detrimental in fighting crime in that it makes the law enforcement personnel, together with other stakeholders fail to address some of the root causes that exposes one to such crimes (Lenta & Farland, 2008). Doing away with capital punishment would open up law enforcement officers and other players’ minds on ways of reducing crimes such as murder. This would help reduce such crimes by exceptional levels.
The debate on whether to continue practicing and using capital punishment in the modern day society is likely to persist in years to come. Both opponents and proponents of these antagonistic positions would have their own reasons to support or oppose capital punishment. Whether one is in support or in opposition to capital punishment, a logical and ethical consideration of the two is vital before making a decision on what is best for all persons involved and for the good of humanity. Many reasons that support the doing away with capital punishment exist. Capital punishment is retrogressive, as it does not address the core issues concerning adjudication of justice to the victims and the caused. Application of capital punishment does not serve to meet the broad objectives of an effective criminal justice system.

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Turkey: Dressing determines whether you keep your job

Your culture and religion should not determine whether you get a position in an organization or not. This is in particular to Islamic women in some of the Asian countries such as turkey. These are the thoughts that the author Marc Champions evokes in his article “turkey cracks down on cleavage.” Back in the early 1920s, there was a headscarf ban in Turkey. It was largely influenced by former Ottoman Empire and Islamic Caliphate, Secular (Zürcher 20). However, in the recent past, the ban has been lifted off. However, this has come with other challenges such that the idea of too much cleavage might cause a person to lose their job. The author is targeting the secularist audience to bring to their attention that the current actions by the Islamist government in place are aimed at retaliating for the years they felt oppressed.
Thesis Statement: the idea of dressing has an impact on employment opportunities for women in Turkey.
The author starts his article with a question of whether, the action taken by the Islamist government is democratic or Islamist. This technique instantly brings out the point that the article is both personal and informal. His ethos is brought out immediately in the first paragraph where he argues that in part the ban on headscarves was limiting the beliefs of the Muslim women who were working mostly in the public sector. Moreover, it is a good thing that the ban has been lifted off, as “Women should not be excluded from the workplace just because they are devout and believe this requires covering their hair, period.”
The author establishes ethos when he argues as writer and analyst in relation to the underlying reason for lifting the ban. He argues that although the lift of the ban has been seen as a relief for the Islamic women working in the public sector, there is belief that it might be another restructured engineering that in the current time is aimed at invading on the liberties of non-religious conservatives. The lifting of the ban “…. also caused a female TV music-show presenter to be fired for showing too much cleavage”.
His ethos is also apparent when he links the statements of Huseyin Celik, who is the spokesperson for the ruling Justice and Development Party as having played a part in relation to the firing of the presenter. In his comments, though not directly directed at the music presenter was against the idea that on national TV a woman could show too much cleavage: “We don’t intervene against anyone, but this is too much. It is unacceptable.” The author believes that none of the words are credible and airs his views that Celik want to have control over Turkey TV: “None of this is credible. Celik knows what “unacceptable” means; he knew that Kansu was on ATV television, which belongs to a company called Calik Holding; and he knew that Calik’s chief executive officer is Erdogan’s son-in-law, Berat Albayrak. There is no coincidence or unintended consequence here. Celik wants to re-engineer Turkish TV.”
The author has in part used some form of irony to bring out the idea that Celik played a role in influencing the firing of the music presenter. This is a clear presentation of his credibility as a writer.
This is evident in the paragraph where he states: “First, Celik should watch more Italian TV — he would then understand that Kansu is a model of shy decorum. Second, Celik’s words were as follows: “We don’t intervene against anyone, but this is too much. It is unacceptable.” According to Harriet Daily News. He later complained that it wasn’t his fault that she was fired, and he had a right to express his opinions” (Champion 7).
The personal argument that is prevalent in the article establishes the pathos that flow with the facts. In reading the article, it creates the impression that it is directed at you in particular to the secularists. The terms he has used in the article such as re-engineering in the place of furthering, democracy creates a sense of raw among the audience. The argument of the article brings attention to the audience, but does not give the idea that people should act now. In a way, the author employs a passive approach that makes people to think rather than to stand up and start forcing for change. From a general perspective, this approach seems more effective than employ an aggressive approach to achieve his objectives.
The author also establishes pathos with the use of questions and facts that are linked to the idea he evokes of Islamists retaliating to the ban of headscarves that was in place. “There are plenty of other pointers about the depth of the government’s commitment to “democratization,” such as the repeated tightening of restrictions on the sale of alcohol, frowned upon by devout Muslims; the routine prosecuting and jailing of journalists; and the crushing of dissent in the Gezi Park protests earlier this year.” These words bring a clear picture and create feelings that there is a possibility of the argument put through by the author. Moreover, following this paragraph is more facts on the idea of Islamist retaliation. This also establishes pathos of the author.
“One last piece of evidence: A Turkish appeals court today upheld the convictions 237 Turkish military officers convicted of plotting a coup against the government in 2003. The case, called Sledgehammer, has been thoroughly discredited. Forensic examination showed that the evidence on which the conviction rested was forged: The documents involved were on a CD-ROM date-stamped 2003, yet were written using a 2007 Microsoft program” (Champion 10).
Based on the pattern that the author has chosen, it is flowing in a way that provides arguments and evidence that support his article. This has a created a great platform for the audience to be persuaded that his arguments are based on facts rather than speculation. In addition to this, it is in a form a critique of the current government that is in place. This has better enhanced his logos; the directness seems to be directed at the government to show that their current form of administration is aimed at oppressing the secularist. This brings out the issue of inequality and the holistic concept of social justice that is rampant in the current world on a global basis. Social justice needs powerful and coherent policies in various regions. Financial, monetary and other economic policies, in addition to, social policies, integrate particular objectives, but must all be aimed at the overall social goal of promoting the welfare of citizens of a given country and in particular to the current world of global interdependence. The well-being of people in a society needs broad-based and sustainable economic growth, economic justice, the stipulation of employment opportunities, and more generally the subsistence of surroundings for the best development of people as individuals and social beings (Betti 100).
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Economics of tax policy

For students to understand the concepts taxations and economics of tax policy, and have the confidence of analyzing and understanding major issues in the field of economics, it is essential to the relevant concepts theoretical and practical economic assessment. As well, students must understand the structural framework of taxation in particular country used as their case study. They must have knowledge on the basic economic terminologies and techniques related to taxation such as incidence and effectiveness. They must know about the major behavioral impacts of various forms of taxes such as those imposed on consumer spending, labor supply, savings and so forth.
Moreover, it is important for students to learn about the various economic models that may influence their spending patterns. In this case, there are two realms the economists consider when looking at the big picture of economics of tax policy. There is macroeconomics model, which considers the general functioning of the economy. It considers such things as the employment rate, Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and inflation. The other model is microeconomics, which looks at the interaction between supply and demand factors in private markets for manufactured goods and services.
Generally, as evidenced in the lecture notes, macroeconomics typically considers the interaction of markets in generating average variables. In microeconomics model, economists evaluates a single market, for instance, whether the supply and demand factors influences the fluctuation of prices. The government becomes a keystone in evaluating macroeconomics, for instance, economists’ study the role the government plays in economic growth or dealing with inflation. Often, economists link macroeconomics to global sphere and link local markets to foreign markets via trade affairs, investments and capitals.
However, microeconomics can as well fall under global sphere. In most cases, economists rarely link single markets to single nations. This analysis applies the two models in analyzing the question why some of the mums refuse to return to the workforce or full time work. In this case, the author applies the concept of macroeconomics wrongly. The central focus in macroeconomics is determining whether markets are capable of bringing economic balance without any intervention. If the market operates freely by ensuring high employment level, steady prices and stable economic growth the government seldom intervenes.
However, governments intervene by introducing macroeconomic policies that ensures successful performance of the economy. The subsidies that the government assists in catering for additional costs mothers incurs during the childcare. However, the government only provides the subsidies for a certain period before the mother resumes to work. Therefore, it is unclear why some mums are unlikely to resume to their full work. Perhaps, some mothers minimize their spending patterns during the childcare and use the savings in future, therefore refusing to return to the workforce. Some people argue that if the government provides more subsidies, it will stop moms to resume to work.
On one hand, the amount of subsidies may discourage some mothers from returning to work and instead use the money in starting income generating activities. From an economic point of view, there are other economic concepts that play a significant role in determining the living standards of citizens. For instance, effective tax system in Australia is a selective tax system based on the amount of income earned.
The concept ensures economic balance of the income earners. Those earning low salaries are subjected to low percentage of taxation and vice versa for those with high salaries. This ensures economic balance between citizens thus bringing equality. In showing how the individual with joint income are subjected to tax base, economists compares the Marginal and average tax rates experienced by these persons in the two households.
Partners earning similar incomes are subject to same MTR’s. Henry Review Family Payment System suggests that the replacement of the current family payments system with a single-family payment withdrawn in a single means test based on family income. From an economic point of view, the government’s intervention in ensuring effective tax system is for ascertaining efficiency.
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My Views on the Right to Bear Arms

Security is one of the most sensitive areas which influence the smooth running of economic activities among others. There has been rise in insecurity in both national and international scale. This has majorly been as a result of burglary, kidnapping and terrorist activities. Terrorist activities, especially, have been on the rise in the recent past, and have caused loss of life and destruction of property. Killing seems to be the clerical call for terrorists. These activities pose a threat to both national and personal security. Therefore, self defense is of essence in the fight against the skyrocketing incidences of insecurity. This discussion will endeavor to discuss the right to own a gun as a step towards boosting self defense.
It is not fair to blame a pen for misspelling a word. It is equally not fair to blame a gun after incidences of crime and violence occur. Studies have shown that guns do not kill people; people kill people. If one may remain stationary and does not pull a trigger, a gun will always be a lifeless object incapable of hurting anything. It is when a wicked mind and deranged mind pulls the trigger that the wickedness of the mind is transferred to the gun. Actually, antigun laws have thrived since it has been argued over and over again that guns cause increase in criminal activities. The second amendment in the bill of rights of the US attracts heated debates. The bill proposes the ability of the Americans to bear guns. Some people are of the idea that the right could go a long way in reducing gun violence.
It is good to first review on the requirements for being a good citizen. The definition of being a good citizen differs in accordance with individual’s beliefs as well as the country they reside. However, one thing remains common in the definitions. A good citizen is one who adheres strictly to the laws of the land and the directives of the government while enjoying other human rights. Being obedient and mindful to the society is imperative in the achievement of justice and liberty for all. Democratic laws especially in the US have designed an extension of the classic guidelines of citizenship. This extension has produced a social system way more utopian than history could document. Before the America’s independence, the founding fathers established a framework of the government without regard to human rights, even where such rights were threatened by insecurity.
Samuel Adams remarked that the constitution shall, in no way, be perceived to mandate the Congress to bar the US citizens from the right to own firearms. Although the right in question may be assumed to be about owning firearms, there is a deeper interpretation. Actually, owning a gun is only a tip of the iceberg. The founder’s intention was to use such means as self defense to prevent recurrence of the past misfortunes, by allowing people to not only defend themselves against external intruders but any oppression lurking in the country.
When national security is in a mess due to external dangers, safeguarding liberty by way of a backup plan is the real meaning of the second amendment. This puts power in the hands of the people such that the government position is refreshed continually. The ability of the people to be in possession of power is the fundamental duty of everyone to maintain liberty by use of the tools through which it was acquired. It is worth to note here that studies have linked guns to deteriorating security in the society. However, it should also be noted that the studies compare the situation to countries which have been denied the second amendment, which is indeed a reminder of the high likelihood of those countries becoming oppressive.
Homicide, assaults, assassinations, and robberies have been linked with gun violence. While this is true, is should also be noted that such stories have been investigated by sociopaths in an attempt to kill. In this case, the abuse of the American right is representative of the vast majority with malicious intent. Gun violence may crowd the fact that those who commit such crimes constitute only 2% of the American population. This vastly outnumbered group will most likely go to the unfortunate extremes of committing violent acts, which endangers the remaining 98%. These perpetrators have not only used guns but rat poison and knives to mention but a few.
In conclusion, gun ownership is enshrined in some constitutions such as in the America. They are to serve as defense and protection from all potential threats even the government, by allowing people to be armed as a temporal response to the danger. The same argument can be proposed of the legality of guns. This is so since a bun on guns would move the law abiding citizens to surrender their guns while the lawless criminals would fail to cooperate. This would technically give them an upper hand. Therefore, it is the right of the people to protect themselves at whichever cost, including ownership of firearms.

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Amundson, “Yellowcake Towns during the Commercial Boom and Bust, 1970-1988”

This paper focuses on the author Amundson, and specifically on his book “yellowcake towns during the commercial boom and bust, 1970 to 1988.” This paper will focus on the arguments he gives, the evidence he has brought forth, how the evidence are connected to what he is talking about, and the discussion questions.
ARGUMENTS
Amundson in his book tries to look at the effects of mining uranium in the yellowcake towns even after the government giving out warnings of radiation levels of being up to 25 times higher than what a normal environment should have. Amundson looks into these communities that support uranium industry development and their health and economic consequences. Amudson explores the reasons why with the radiation levels being so high, why do these communities continue staying in that region, growing in numbers, and even joking about the radiations even after being warned by the government. Amudson notes that the community is more interested and concerned with remaining in that area and were not concern of the impact of the radiation levels to their health. The article talks about the impact of uranium mining in this region and how it helps the community to grow thus making them not want to move to other areas as it is a source of employment and livelihood for the whole community. Amudson tries to explore government policies that were put into place to try and influence the people of these areas to move away from these regions.
EVIDENCE
For Amundson to be able to bring out and support his argument clearly, he uses information from official government records and reports and historical books. Amundson must have chosen these sources because he felt that they would be able to clearly show yellowcake communities and their personal experience stories.. The use of these sources of information had a deficiency as they all focused on how the mining of uranium in the region had improved the region and not how they affected the region. Nuclear regulatory commission, United states energy source management, United States department of energy, the United states congress committee on Atomic energy are some of the documents Amundson used in his quest. All this documents can be simply described as the United States government and during those years they were considered an important and accurate source of information. This sources of information were also not giving person or firsthand experiences that the community in the yellowcake community were experiencing in both boom and low seasons. For Amundson to be able to find the best information, he would have interviewed the indigenous members of the community who have been there since the uranium was found and during the boom and low seasons of mining. They would have given Amundson a detailed description of the impacts of mining uranium has had on the health and economy of the region.
CONNECTION
In the quest of Amundson to examine these four towns depending on uranium for economic development in both boom and bust season, Amundson was looking on how government policies affect residents of an area. This story can be compared to California gold rush where people moved into California to exploit the gold in the region as they belied it would stimulate economic growth. The government had to put in policies in the mining of gold in California and this affected the residents and those who had migrated into the region both in the low and high seasons of mining. This too is what was happening in the yellowcakes towns.
DISCUSSION QUESTIONS
What are the impacts of government policies on residents of mining regions? What kind of legislation should governments put in place in mining areas? What type of legislations should be put in place for industries so as to control the mining in those areas? Did the political and government policies have an effect on the downfall of the yellowcake communities? Were health concerns a part of the downfall?

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Fundamentals of Optimization

1. P1 := {x ɛRn : A(1)x = b(1), x≥0}≠ Φ
P2 := {x ɛRn : A(2)x = b(2), x≥0}≠ Φ
A(1) ɛRm1Xn, A(2) ɛRm2Xn, b(1) ɛRm1 , b(2) ɛRm2.
P1 x P2 := {(u, v) ɛR2n: u ɛP1, v ɛP2}
Let x=,
2. x1 + 2×2 – 2147383647×3 + x4 = 3
2×1 – x2 +17189128703×3+ 2×4 = 1
x1, x2, x3, x4 ≥0
a.
b,
3. A ɛRmxn, (A) = m and b ɛRm
F := {xɛRn: Ax=b, x≥0}
xɛRn is an extreme point of F if ẍ is a basic feasible solution of {Ax = b, x≥ 0}
4. A ɛRmxn (A) = m and b ɛRm
a. {x ɛRn : Ax =b, x≥0}, c ɛRn
Maximize cTx subject to Ax = b
x ≥ 0 is unbounded
b. {x ɛRn : Ax =b, x≥0}is unbounded and has at least one extreme point
5. (P) { ẍ}
6. F::= (x ɛR3 : x – λ1e1+ λ2e2+ λ3e3 + ue, for some λ ɛR3+, u ɛ R, e-T λ =1}
F := Axb { A ɛRmx3, b ɛRm}
7. max {cT x: Ax = b, x ≥ 0),
A := 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 7 1
1 1 1 2 1 1 1 5 2
1 1 2 1 4 -2 0 , b := 5 , c := 2
1 2 1 1 -1 4 0 5 2
6
4
-4
B := {1,2,3,4}, x*B = [1,1,1,1,1]
8. n>m, A ɛRmxn, (A) =m
maximize cTx minimize bTy
(P) subject to Ax = b and (D) subject to ATy-s =c
x ≥0 s ≥ –
9. (A,b, c) (A ɛRmxn, rank (A) =m), y ɛRm,
c := c – ATy
d ɛRn, Ad =0, c-Td = cTd

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What do we learn about the Status of Women in Athens and the Society?

Lysistrata is perceived as the greatest work ever done by Aristophanes. The play carries both spiritual and intellectual tendrils, which makes it have deeper relevance into life. It holds intimate elements of femininity and offers a fine sense of the charm of women in the society. The play reflects a sweet sense of women and their bodies. In the play, Aristophanes vitalized femininity with a deep delight, which is portrayed as a negative acclamation of life among men. Lysistrata portrays women from different societies teaming up to engage in a battle with their husbands to abandon their political ambitions for the sake of peace. Through the main character, Lysistrata, the author portrays women as powerful and excellent. Lysistrata is a strong female character used by the author of the play to show that women are influential and subservient at the same time. In many respects, Lysistrata breaks from the women roles as perceived in the traditional societies. Using this as a foundation, the play sparks the question, what do we learn about status of women in Athens and the society?
Other than Lysistrata, the play depicts the rest of the women in Athens to fit the stereotyped individuals of the time who are dutiful to their husbands and housebound. Lysistrata is irritated and angered by the behavior of men. She plans to have a meeting of women from Thebes, Sparta and Athens in order to address the problems and limitations of women. It is unquestionable that Lysistrata was the ringleader of the movement, something that portrays her as having masculine elements. The masculine character of Lysistrata serves to enhance credibility of the play since the males of the time would not believe that a woman would influence such change.
At the beginning of the play, Lysistrata is using other women in her quest to bring about change in Athens. She examines Spartan under same sexualized scrutiny like a man sizing up an upcoming conquest. With the directions from Lysistrata, selected women examine sexual viability of other women. Even though the motive behind all these happening was to bring men back home and end the war, the selection process used by women explains more about gender and power in the society. Instead of using straightforward effort, the women under the leadership of Lysistrata rely on their sexes to achieve their goals. At this point, the feminist play can be read and interpreted in different ways and the result would reveal women as performing over-sexed roles in the society. All women engaged in this movement were asked to refrain from any physical contact with their husbands until the mission is accomplished. The women succeeded in their plans and the war ended. The city previously at war transformed to be the city of peace and harmony. What remains to be seen is whether men will regain their status of having sexual control over their wives.
Even though readers of the play may argue that women should assume their subservient places in the society after the war, it is clear that this is no longer possible in the modern sense. In my view, it is a preposterous idea to allow events to change the course of history. Women should play their typical roles even in the modern times.
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Support Group for African American Women Diagnosed with Bipolar Disorder

Logic model process
The formation of the Bipolar disorder support group known as the BD Women Support Group (BDWSG) started among women who worked as social workers in the hospital within the region. The major reason for the start of the support of the group was to enhance the visitation of the social workers in the hospitals in order to guide and counsel the sick. The social workers need to make time and plan on how they need to manage the sick. The bipolar patients suffer the mental illness majorly involve stress and depression. According to Chenoweth, (2005) the model process is necessary for any group improvement since the model helps the group to come up with objectives, evaluation, resources and the mode they will work towards the achievement of the goals. For instance, the logic model process for the support group might include objectives such as visiting a certain number of health facilities or homesteads in a given duration. After the outlining of the objective then the support group needs to come up with the available means that would facilitate the success of the objectives.
The resources in this case include the number of the members in the support group, the finance, the materials such as cars or enough external aid from other departments. Immediately after the resources, (Kadushin, 2012) the logic model entails the activities, this are the exact steps that the group would take in order to visit a large number of the sick women. The activity might entail waking up early and extending the closure time for a period of one hour in order to increase the time for visiting the sick women. The last processes of the logic model process include the process measures, the outcome measures and external factors. These processes entail the prediction of the results of the project. If the process is successful and this processes depends on the resources and the activity stages.
The need statement
The support group takes care of women diagnosed with bipolar disorder. The group makes sure that the sick women receive good medicinal care and even the social surrounding would influence the health of the patient. The group also helps the sick by provision of material aid such as free medicine to the patients, food, clean water and other supplements. Kadushin, (2012) contemplates that the need for the support group entails little cash and external aid from the nongovernmental organizations. This hinders the group from helping numerous patients and the provision of the materials. The patients also have need such as most of the patients do not want to interact freely with other patients posing as a challenge to the support group to manipulate and help the patients (Chenoweth, 2005). Other patients never want to accept their conditions and therefore they only need a specialized doctor that is very expensive for the support group to hire.
Literature review
Sheppard, (2004) states that the bipolar disorder interferes with a person’s mood whereby the mood of an individual is difficult to predict since a person cannot tell if the patient is happy, sad since the mood does not last long. This gives the support group a difficult time since some of the people need counseling and trained people and this becomes difficult for the group since it cannot hire individuals who need to get for their services since it becomes expensive. Most support groups fail in dealing with cases of such individuals suffering from the mental disorders since they tend not to see the individuals appreciating their efforts.
Development and facilitation of the group
Facilitation of a group requires planning and good management in order to achieve the set goals. The key reason to the success of the group requires independence during the formation of the objectives. The support group requires observing the proceeding of other support group in order to attain the reasons for the success and the reasons for the collapse of the other groups. The developmental changes include the orientation, conflict, emergence and reinforcement stages (Sheppard, 2004). These stages explain the procedure whereby the group members will meet during the first time and therefore they start bonding, the members would then result into a conflict such that their opinions would disagree. In the emergence stage, the people will come up with the best ideas and lastly the reinforcement stage states that come together and agree on various steps.
Define goals and objectives
In trying to achieve the goals and objectives of the organization, it is essential that the management emphasize on the aspect of group work. To meet the expectations of the group, the employees need to work in both groups and team to deliver the appropriate workforce necessary in meeting the goals and objectives of the agency (Kadushin, 2012). In an effort to support the African American women diagnosed with Bipolar Disorder, it is vital that the appropriate personnel with trained skills and knowledge participate fully.
Address agency sponsorship and environment
The fact that people willing to offer help to the African American women with the bipolar ailment are mere social workers do not have enough knowledge on how to handle the people with stress, it is also necessary to engage the agency and sponsorship support in the effort. Having ready help to assist the sick patients is not enough. It is appropriate that other members of the society who are able and willing offer the vital finance in treatment of the patients. In trying to assist the African American women suffering from Bipolar Disorder, capital is vital in ensuring that the right equipment and medicine is provided (Sheppard, 2004). In most cases, offering help to the sick does require capital since most sick patients always require for psychological motivations. However, in some special cases, like assisting sick patience related to the Bipolar Disorder, the agencies and sponsors that have capital need to support the women. The women will need trained physicians frequently. This is only possible when capital is available to support the diverse medical conditions that require proper attention.
Recruitment of participants
In recruiting participants, diverse techniques and procedures are available to ensure that people with skills and willingness develop the groups. The first and most essential criteria to consider in the recruiting of the participants are the use of interviews to all the members willing and available. Before the recruitment procedure, it is vital that media advertising such as the radio and television take place to inform the society (Kadushin, 2012). The advert need to incorporate the qualification of the candidates needed to accomplish the required task. The date of the interview and the place where all the activities will take place also need to well known to the members of the society. The members that turn up on the day of the interview needs to carry along with the papers to indicate that they are qualified for the desired positions.
Group structure and process
After the recruitment, the obtained members need to form working groups and team work groups that will assist in accomplishing the diverse duties and tasks. The groups structure need to involve all the members that have both trained and untrained skills of dealing with the sick African American women. All the diversity issues such as the human and cultural diversity need to be considered in creating the groups. Since the groups will deal with offering help to the African American women, issues with ethical and dilemmas ought to be considered to avoid conflict in the groups (Chenoweth & McAuliffe, 2005). Most of the members recruited into the groups need to have proper knowledge concerning rural aspects. Most of the African American women that suffer from the Bipolar disorder occupy the rural parts of American. For this reason, having prior information concerning the rural life will assist in dealing and handling the women.

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Descriptive Essay: Scenes from the Life of Saint John the Baptist – (1490/95)

Bartolomeo di Giovanni crafted this painting in ca. 1506-7. The medium of the painting is tempera, smear with oil, and gold on lumber, which brings out the glittering aspect of the painting. The painting is a creative depiction of the series of events that took place before St John the Baptist was born. The depiction shows no less than five boards telling the existence of John the Baptist. As observed on the painting, the events from left to the right show the annunciation of the delivery of John the Baptist to Zacharias who became the future father of John. The next event is Elizabeth’s visit by Mary, the mother of Jesus. This event is popularly known as the Visitation as indicated by the Bible.
The next event is the birth of John the Baptist whereby Zacharias is depicted warming his body at an inglenook. The structural design is beautified with allegorical ornamentations clearly derived from Roman coins, which is a clear representation of donors monumental. The fact that Giovanni employed lapis lazuli, which is a crafty mortar that represents the earth, shows that he was extremely creative. This is also emphasized by the iconography naturalism that he uses to shows his artistic stylization of the clothes that were used in ancient times. Iconography is simply an extreme non-naturalistic and stylization display of clothing of the images of people in paintings. After the birth of John, several people brought patronage to Zacharias who is seen on the bed as an appreciation for the birth of John. The fact that Giovanni depicts a cyclic form of narrative on the painting shows his outstanding nature of creativity, which made him one of the greatest artists of his time.
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Why Learning is a Characteristic that Appeals to Me

As I watched over the man moving about the decorated altar, I knew I believed in his ideologies. He was a middle aged man, dressed in a black suit that matched with his black shirt, tie and shoes. Pastor Ken was not only known for his eloquence but also for his vigor and strong connection to the Christian values. As a child, I loved listening to his sermons. On this day, Ken talked about death and how to overpower it. The knowledge that someday I would have to part with the precious joys and favors I received from my parents proved to be an obstacle for me. Death has never been a welcoming aspect in human life and its thought triggers fears and uncertainty in people. However, Ken’s sermon was rather unusual in my interpretation as he promised a cure for my fears.
The part of the sermon that seemed to appeal to me on that day is the promise for everlasting life. Ken’s promises were accompanied with scriptural references. One could see that he was convinced of his message, to the extent of sweating and losing his voice. Now and then, someone in the congregation would scream loudly or shout encouragingly. This was the way of expressing agreement with the pastor’s sermon. By the end of the sermon, I had a few ways of achieving timelessness in mortal life. The pastor had recommended a few things concerning sanctity and righteousness. The biggest shortcoming in my comprehension of Ken’s sermon was the literal translation of everlasting life and death.
I still enjoyed listening to Pastor Ken and would attend the service every Sunday. However, something rather confusing happened in my late childhood. As we sat in the church one Sunday, the Chairman announced that Pastor Ken was not available. Much later, we learnt that Ken had been diagnosed with cancer and was admitted to the hospital. We all gave money contributions to his medical care and prayed for his recovery. However, Ken’s health deteriorated, and after seven months in the hospital he succumbed to the disease. The reality of his death dawned to me after his burial ceremony. My belief in timelessness of life was highly threatened.
As I came to meditate on Ken’s life, I realized that death and everlasting life in the spiritual interpretations differed from my personal belief. This increased my interests in the subject; therefore, I embarked on a personal research. From it, I discovered that the physical death was inevitable for any mortal being. The death discussed by Pastor Ken involved a long lasting disconnection with the fulfillment of the human life. I learnt that death was the birth into another life. The everlasting life, however, has to eliminate mortality in order to commence. Righteous living and maintaining peace with mankind and the universe are the essential ways of accessing fulfillment and, ultimately, enlightenment in life. These facts remained unknown to me before the tragic death of Pastor Ken.

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February 3, 2014

Social media and e-communication

The use of social media and e-communication techniques such as social networking sites, micro-blogging, social tagging and wikis is proliferating at an incredible pace. One area in which it has been increasingly adopted is the business environment where companies are hoping that the new technologies will assist to improve vital organizational processes. Nevertheless, scholars have greatly failed to explain how and if the use of social media and e-communication in organizations differ from traditional forms of computer-oriented communications. This study will contend that social media and e-communication are of vital consequence to organizational communication processes (Smerdon, 41). This is because they afford behaviors that were impossible or difficult in combination before these advanced techniques entered the work place. The literature review of previous studies on Social media and e-communication use in organizations reveal four consistent affordances permitted by these new technologies. They include persistence, visibility, association, and edit ability. This study will suggest that the activation of the integration of these affordances may influence most organizational communication theories. To demonstrate this point, the study will theorize how social media and e-communication affordances may alter knowledge sharing, socialization and processes within the organization.
Background
A host of studies have demonstrated that social media and e-communication technologies facilitate communication practices in organizations. This is unlike other traditional computer oriented communication strategies such as teleconferencing, email, intranets and decision support systems. Besides the scholarly work on the role of social media and e-communication in organizations, other publications have issues strong proclamations that social media and e-communication will change the business world. With no doubt, the adoption of social media in organizations is happening at a rapid pace. Drawing on global surveys, at least seventy percent of companies reported the use of social media technologies in their organizations. Study after study projects that corporate spending on business social media and e-communication will reach more than $10 billion annually by 2020 (Fielding & Michael 88).
However, despite the increased usability of social media and e-communication by firms, communication researchers have not yet adequately understood the implications of these new technologies in organizational processes. Scholars suggest that the adoption of social media and e-communication in organizations is outpacing empirical findings of the use of these technologies and emerging theories about why they alter organizational processes. As the implications of social media and e-communication in organizations are not well understood, this study will accomplish three major tasks. First, it will explore the emerging body of literature on the use of social media and e-communication in organizations (Marilyn & Laurence 56). This will be based on the premise that social media and e-communication constitute a set of communication innovations, which are distinct in their implications on organizational processes from conventional computer oriented communication innovations. This study establishes that scholars treat social media and e-communication as a new set of technologies, which could alter organizational dynamics in various ways. Drawing from this finding, the second task will be to explore the different ways social media and e-communication merge with ongoing communication processes occurring within organizations. This study will employ an affordable approach, which enables the researcher to organize findings obtained in other empirical studies in various categories describing how employees use social media technologies to achieve their objectives (Smallwood95). With the use of this categorization, the study will finally complete the third task; it will draw implications for how the use of social media and e-communication within organizations affects specific organizational processes, which are of immense interest to communication researchers.
Related Literature
From early 2005, the attention of researchers turned to social media and e-communication networks. Researchers have considered various aspects. Some of them have focused on the relationship between these systems and the users in this context. Most available studies indicate that the majority of social media and e-communication networks serve a need to reinforce current relationships. This builds bridges between the offline and the online worlds. The researchers suggest that these strategies are widely used as tools for market and audience segmentation, as well analyzing niche audiences (Patrut 50).
The Model
Companies that have registered to the use of social media and e-communication will be tracked for their submissions. The website will be sued to identify companies that use social media and e-communication. The list will be then cross-checked against a list of the companies and the web search engine will be used to verify the correct feed being analyzed. Various caveats will accompany the findings of this study. The analyst will treat all employees’ online activities which will be structurally identified because each employee’s e-communication activities will not reveal information about its genesis. Sometimes, employees will be personally communicating through social media while sometimes they will be delegating their e-communication responsibilities to their communication staff. This paper draws no distinction between the two (Brunty& Larry23). Some employees use social media and e-communication mediums in their official capacity while others use these assets to advocate for organizational interests. The conclusions drawn from this study will be easily generalized as they predict the future trends. They give a glimpse into how organizations are using new communication technologies to share their activities, strategies and goals.
Empirical Analysis
This empirical analysis captures key drivers of social media and e-communication. This section will approximate the impact of social media and e-communication on organizational performance. The main objective of the empirical research is to explore the current trends of social media and e-communication use in organizations. Data for companies using social media and e-communication techniques is readily available as industries began requiring companies to submit reports on their use of these technologies (Flynn71). Also, information is easily available as many organizations chose to report voluntarily the results of using social media and e-communication. To measure the impacts of using social media and e-communication, forty organizations will be analyzed. These will be mostly multinational corporations.
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Comparative Analysis

Introduction
HTC is a company whose headquarters is in Taiwan, and it specializes in the manufacture of tablets and smartphones. It was founded in 1997, and it started its operations as an original equipment manufacturer and original design manufacturer. It used to design and manufacturer devices such as touchscreen phones, mobile phones, PDAs, and Brew MP, which it used to market to mobile network operators who wanted to customize their products. After successfully making mobile phones that were based on Windows Mobile Operating System, HTC decided to expand its operations to designing devices that were based on Android operating system, and in 2010, it also embarked on the manufacture of Windows Phone.
HTC embarks on releasing and marketing the smartphones that it manufactures under the HTC brand. This has led HTC to be ranked at the 98th top brand around the world. HTC is one of the founding members of Open Handset Alliance. This is a group of mobile network operators and handset manufacturers who show dedication to developing the platform that is based on the Android operating system (Bamburic, 2012). The purpose of this paper is to discuss the financial performance of HTC for the last three years, and the stock performance for the past 1 year.
Company Financial Background
HTC is treated as one of the major players in the Android market. It is a company that delivers some of the best smartphones in the market today. In order to improve its performance, HTC embarked on a strategy in 2012 aimed at allowing it to produce high quality devices, as opposed to focusing on the large number of devices that they release to the market. In the recent years, HTC has been witnessing disappointing financial results, especially in the second quarter of the year 2012 (Boxall, 2013). During this time, the company was able to post a net income of T$7.4 billion after taxes ($247.7 million). These profits had increased by 65.5 percent while compared to the previous quarter, where it rose from T$4.47 billion ($147 million). The revenues also experiences a rise from T$67.79 billion ($2.26 billion) up to T$91.0 (3.04 billion). This reflected a 34.2 percent rise in the revenues that the company made (Bamburic, 2012).
In 2013, the numbers do not reveal the entire story since HTC has witnessed a decline in profits from T$17.52 billion while compared to the same period in the year 2012. The decline in profits were witnessed since Samsung, which is the main competitor in the smartphone market, is also expanding its share of the smartphone an s tablet market. The other significant problem that HTC faced was the idea that their shipments to the US were blocked by the US customs since they were believed to be infringing on Apple’s patents. It is because of this that the flagship phones that HTC sells to the US such as HTC One X and EVO 4G LTE faced substantial delays in delivery (Boxall, 2013). Things could have been worse for the company, but the shipments got cleared once HTC cleared any features that were noted to infringe patents (Bamburic, 2012).
In Europe, the sales that the company makes have also hurt the revenues that the company makes. This is because the European market is still displaying substantial effects of the financial crisis. This issue has been pointed by Samsung, which is also experiencing the same issues. This means that the Euro will influence the number of HTC devices just like it has done in the case of Samsung. The currency exchange rate that is reflected by the T$/EUR parity is demonstrating instability and erratic changes, and this low ratio is not favoring the profits that have been realized from the sales that have been made in the European region (Boxall, 2013).
Financial Statements Analysis
Balance Sheet
The balance sheet table in the Appendix has been used to reflect whether there are consistencies in the operations that the organization undertakes. From the balance sheet information, it is evident that the percentage growth of the company from 2010 to 2012 is portrayed as follows:
Assets
 Cash and Short-term Investments; 12.21 percent, 17.44 percent and -34.60 percent
 Accounts receivables; 128.11 percent, 5.57 percent, and -25.61 percent
 Total assets growth; 60.05 percent, 33.73 percent, and -18.59 percent
Liabilities and Shareholders’ Equity
As from 2010 to 2012, the liabilities and shareholders’ equity has been portrayed to grow as follows:
 Accounts payable; 154.12 percent, 20.89 percent, and -4.72 percent
 Total Liabilities/ Total assets; 60.76 percent, 59.77 percent, and 61.22 percent
 Common equity/ Total assets: 39.24 percent, 39.84 percent, 38.78 percent
 Total shareholder’s equity/ Total assets; 39.24 percent, 39.84 percent, 38.78 percent (Marketwatch b, 2013)
In the case of assets, it is evident that their growth has gone down significantly from 2010 to 2012. This is a reflection that there is something wrong with the company, and serious measures should be taken in order to ensure that the company realizes growth and copes with the competitive atmosphere in the telecommunications sector. The shareholders’ equity is also experiencing a drop, and thus an indication that the performance of the company is deteriorating.
The income statement table in the appendix is an illustration of HTC’s financial performance from 2010 to 2012, and it is used to reveal whether the operations of the company are in line with its objectives. From the income statement table, the growth of the company from 2010 to 2012 has been realized as follows:
 Sales growth; 92.92 percent, 67.09 percent and -37.95 percent
 Cost of goods sold growth; 97.18 percent, 71.66 percent, and -34.70 percent
 Gross income growth; 82.42 percent, 56.4 percent, and -46.32 percent
 SGA growth; 86.14 percent, 57.00 percent, and -16.93 percent
 Interest expense growth; 63.85 percent, 769.71 percent, and -100.00 percent
 Pretax income growth; 77.02 percent, 58.85 percent, and -73.31 percent
 Net income growth; 74.86 percent; 56.77 percent, and -72.92 percent
 EPS (Basic) growth; 77.34 percent, 58.77 percent, and -72.49 percent
 EPS (Diluted) growth; 78.44 percent, 57.66 percent, and -72.08 percent (Marketwatch a, 2013)
From the above information, it is evident that the overall performance of HTC has been deteriorating from 2010 to 2012, and this drop in performance is anticipated to intensify unless the company devices a mechanism that can allow it to improve the quality of its products, and hence boost its sales revenue and win the confidence of the consumers.
Financial Ratios Analysis
Key Ratios 2010-12 2011-12 2012-12
Gross margin 30.1 28.3 21.1
Operating margin 15.8 14.8 5.5
Profitability
Tax rate 12.12 12,78 0.85
Return on assets 20.77 27.86 7.4
Return on equity 52.91 69.98 18.36
Return on invested capital 52.9 69.95 18.36
Liquidity/ Financial health
Current ratio 1.46 1.27 1.03
Quick ratio 1.18 1 0.76
Financial leverage 2.55 2.49 2.48
Efficiency
Receivables turnover 4.52 7.42 6.47
Inventory turnover 7.38 12.18 8.73
Fixed Assets turnover 19.88 26.21 13.06
Source: (Morning star, 2013)
After analyzing the financial ratios affiliated with the company, it is evident that the performance of HTC improved from 2010 to 2011. However, the performance of the company deteriorated significantly in 2012. This is a reflection that there is inconsistency on the way in which the company undertook its operations in the last year. In case the performance of the company keeps deteriorating in that sense, it is evident that the company will not be able to cope with the growing competition, especially the one that has been brought forth by companies such as Apple and Samsung.
Return on equity calculation using DuPont System
Return on equity= net income / total equity
From the Income statement and balance sheet in the appendix, the Net income from 2010 to 2012 comprise of 39.53 B, 61.98 B and 16.78 B while Total Equity comprises of 74.71 B, 102.42, B and 80.37 B
ROE 2010= 39.53/74.71= 0.529*100= 52.9%
ROE 2011= 61.98/102.42= 0.605*100 = 60.5%
ROE 2012= 16.78/80.37= 0.209*100 = 20.9%
From the data regarding return on equity, it is evident that it rose in 2011, and then deteriorated in 2012. This is an illustration that the performance of the company went down in 2012.
Conclusion
Earlier in 2012, HTC stipulated that it would focus on producing a limited number of smartphones that were high of quality. However, as of April 2012, the company has released eight new models, and thus an indication that the company was not in line with its objectives. With respect to this issue, the strategies that the company has adopted can lead to the formation of conclusions since they have not had any impact on the sales that HTC has made from one quarter to the other (Boxall, 2013). In this case, it is evident that HTC is illustrating inconsistencies in its statements as a result of the number and the quality of devices that they make. The determination that is associated with this company does not reflect in their financial statements.
The strengths associated with HTC is that is chose giant players in the software in industry such as Microsoft and Android, and this allowed it to enter the market with less risks it has a strong hardware design that allow it to provide high quality products, innovation and technology. Moreover. ODM allowed the company to save costs and avoid risks associated with market entry. In addition, most operators buy products from HTC and embark on promoting the products themselves. This has allowed the company to thrive in the market despite competitive pressures (CBI-IMBA, 2010).
On the other hand, there are various weaknesses that are associated with the company that led it to deteriorate in performance. For instance, when operator businesses requested for customization modules, the customization process made the company to increase costs of operation, and thus reducing its profit margin significantly. HTC was also too related to the Microsoft platform that was not a mainstream with respect to the smartphone market (CBI-IMBA, 2010). Moreover, the brand awareness of the company is weak, and this is the one that makes the company to have low number of customers, and be prone to competition from major players such as Apple and Samsung.
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Ethical Reasoning

Apple Inc. has faced many challenges throughout its operation history. The company is characterized by remarkable leadership, corporate culture of innovation, and production of high tech products. It has played the role of revolutionizing the technology and retail industries. It ensures that all its workers display appropriate conduct at all times. It demonstrates integrity in all its business interactions through maintaining innovative and high quality products and services. Apple promotes ethical principles, such as respect, honesty, compliance, and confidentiality. The company has a code of business conduct to guide through its operations; it has policies that govern its business during conflicts or any other questionable conduct.
Apple has experienced several ethical issues despite its consistent high performance in the global markets. Ethical issues pertains to principles of morality, expressing moral approval, right or wrong in conduct, and are the morals considered correct in a given group or profession. The ethical issues have the potential of destroying future success of the company. This is because reputation can be easily damaged by misconduct or failure to address risks or dangers appropriately.
Apple Inc. needs to keep consistent oversight on the quality of new and existing products. Failure of ensuring quality products can lead to serious ethical dilemma. The company has to detect mistakes before introducing a new product in the market. For example, consumers began to complain about the reception problems on iPhone 4 after Apple had introduced the product. This led to criticisms from public relations; although the remedy did not succeed as the company resolved the reception problem. However, the issue did not stop consumers from purchasing the iPhone 4. Future problems could lead to damage of the brands strength in the international market.
Apple has been aggressive about its patent protection. The company has engaged in major lawsuits with major players in the industry, such as Samsung. The ethical issue is whether the claims are legitimate or is the company trying to cast its competitors using dishonest ways. It is also facing lawsuits for patent violations. For example, Kodak claims that the company encroached on its copyright on digital imaging technology. Apple is concerned about intellectual property because it keeps its information secret to prevent competitors from stealing its ideas. Apple filed a lawsuit against Microsoft on the claims that it exposed its information despite its licensing agreements. The court ruled in favor of Microsoft stating that the licensing agreements did not cover the claims of Apple. The action of Apple in this situation remains controversial.
The company has a focus on environmental issues; Apple aims to ensure that its facilities and products reduce environmental impacts. At the same time, Apple owns up that its products have severe environmental impacts. Apple engages in constant research and innovation pushing its competitors to upgrade technology at a fast rate. This could result to excessive tossing of older technology and insufficient assessment of risks of new products to the environment.
Apple offers some products that undermine the privacy of end users. These products have features that collect information on the users’ location. The company provided options of disabling these features but it was not entirely true. iPhone can still collect information after disabling. Government legislation on mobile privacy can affect the company’s image.
Ethical Issues from various Theoretical Perspectives
Ethical theories are critical when it comes to organizational transformation. Ethical perspectives are essential in identifying and defining problems. They enable human beings think systematically and view issues from different points. This helps them make guided decisions. Utilitarianism theory focuses on the motive to do good for a high number of people. It supports that ethical choices should be based on the consequences. Utilitarianism considers both short and long-term consequences in ethical decision-making. The immediate benefit of a decision must not outweigh its possible future costs. The alternative decisions must also produce more good than harm. Purchasing an iphone is ethical. Apple has offered high quality and innovative products that satisfy consumers. Some government officials and consumers are against some of the product features, such as user location but this does not suggest that the Apple should stop offering the product or product features.
Another theoretical perspective is the Kant’s categorical imperative that supports the idea of doing what is right no matter what the consequences are. Kant argues that moral imperatives or duties are categorical. This means that they should be obeyed without exceptions. Moral act arises when people follow their duty not in response with the consequences. This theory encourages human beings to respect and encourage the capacity of others to choose for themselves. Apple has been successful in research and innovation of new technologies. Competitors claim that the company makes advances in technology fast leading to extreme tossing of older technology. It is ethical for Apple to continue with its operations and competitors should support the decisions of Apple.
Altruism supports concern for others. This theory is based on the principle that people should help others without expecting to benefit from doing so. It seeks to benefit the other person not the self. This is because concern for others promotes healthy relationships. It is unethical for Apple to use its advances in technology without considering environmental impacts. The company needs to become concerned on the communities it operates in and encourage its employees to ensure that the company products and facilities used protect the environment.
Uncertainties Inherent in Ethical Situation
Uncertainty touches most aspects in life, and this means that decisions can create consequences that are difficult or impossible to predict. Decision making that is ethical demands for utilization of knowledge and awareness of the relevant uncertainties involved, such as risk and dangers. Risk assessment is the principle measure of uncertainty. The reputation of Apple can be easily damaged because the company has engaged in serious misconduct or failure to address risks appropriately. The company ends up in controversies and dishonest activities. Risks on misconduct can hinder the company’s success in the future.
Effects of Ethical Issues on Stakeholders
Stakeholders represent an opening phase to crucial application of moral values in decision-making. Apple carries out most of its production operations in countries with low costs of labor. Low wages and benefits increase the chances of misconduct. This arises as a result differing labor standards and less direct insights. Apple has to force its suppliers and workers to comply through creating code of conduct. Apple has to continuously evaluate the conduct of its employees and suppliers to identify if violations have occurred. The firm refuses to work with those who refuse to comply. The company creates high chances for loosing potential and competent stakeholders.
Conclusion
The ultimate basis for ethics is clear that human behavior can cause consequences on the welfare of others. Human beings are capable of acting in ways that either increase or decrease the quality of life of others. They are capable of helping or harming each other. Humans are theoretically capable of understanding when doing wrong and right, especially when one takes the position of the other through imagination. Human beings have common ethical concepts and principles, which explains why it is essential for everyone to practice ethical reasoning. Ethical reasoning can only be possible using human judgment and linguistic uncertainty.
Ethical Reasoning Summary
Criteria Points
Specify the ethical issue identified Ethical violation
Issue construction: theoretical perspective used to elaborate on the issue Utilitarianism
Kant’s categorical imperative
Altruism
Issue construction: uncertainties inherent in the issue Objective uncertainty
Subjective uncertainty
Explanation and justification: effects on key stakeholders Poor working conditions
Misconduct
Conclusion: values, synthesis, and trade offs Human behavior
Human judgment
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